Advertisement

Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 779–789 | Cite as

TESTING THE EFFECTS OF DRYING METHODS ON WILLOW FLAVONOIDS, TANNINS, AND SALICYLATES

  • Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
  • Sinikka Sorsa
Article

Abstract

In this study, we compared the effects of several preservation methods on the secondary phenolics of the mature leaves of purple willow (Salix purpurea L., Salicaceae) with results obtained with fresh leaf analyses. Conventional freeze-drying, in which the leaves were first frozen with liquid nitrogen and then placed in a freeze-dryer, produced substantial qualitative and quantitative changes in purple willow flavonoids and salicylates. Modified freeze-drying, in which leaves were put into a freeze-dryer without being prefrozen, gave concentrations that, for most secondary components, were comparable with those found in fresh leaves. Reducing the freeze-dryer chamber temperature hindered the decomposition of phenolics in prefrozen leaves and in leaves dried without prefreezing. Heat drying induced substantial changes in the composition of all phenolics, except for apigenin-7-glucoside. Vacuum drying at room temperature gave the highest concentrations for nearly all phenolics, while room-drying with desiccation gave results that were comparable with those obtained by fresh leaf analyses.

Drying tests phytochemicals flavonoids tannins salicylates leaves willow salix 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. BRYANT, J. P., CLAUSEN, T. P., REICHARDT, P. B., McCARTHY, M. C., and WERNER, R. A. 1987. Effect of nitrogen fertilization upon the secondary chemistry and nutritional value of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloidesMichx.) leaves for the large aspen tortrix (Choristoneura conflictana (Walker). Oecologia (Berlin)73:513-517.Google Scholar
  2. BRYANT, J., and JULKUNEN-TIITTO, R. 1995. Ontogenetic development of chemical defense by seedling resin birch: Energy cost of defense production. J. Chem. Ecol.21:883-896.Google Scholar
  3. EGLOFF, C. 1982. Phenolglycoside einheimischer Salix-Arten. Ph D thesis. Zurich.Google Scholar
  4. HAGERMAN, A. 1988. Extraction of tannin from fresh and preserved leaves. J. Chem. Ecol.14:453-461.Google Scholar
  5. HAGERMAN, A. 1995. Tannin analysis. Department of Chemistry, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.Google Scholar
  6. HAKULINEN, J., JULKUNEN-TIITTO, R., and TAHVANAINEN, J. 1995. Does nitrogen fertilization have an impact on the trade-off between willow growth and defensive secondary metabolism? Trees9:235-240.Google Scholar
  7. JULKUNEN-TIITTO, R. 1985. Phenolic constituents in the leaves of northern willows: Methods for the analysis of certain phenolics. J. Agric. Food. Chem.33:213-217.Google Scholar
  8. JULKUNEN-TIITTO, R. 1989. Distribution of certain phenolics in Salixspecies (Salicaceae). University of Joensuu, Publications in Sciences, No. 15.Google Scholar
  9. JULKUNEN-TIITTO, R., and MEIER, B. 1992. Enzymatic decomposition of salicin and its derivatives obtained from Salicaceae species. J. Nat. Prod.55:1204-1212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. JULKUNEN-TIITTO, R., and TAHVANAINEN, J. 1989. The effect of the sample preparation method on extractable phenolics of Salicaceae species. Planta Med.55:55-58.Google Scholar
  11. JULKUNEN-TIITTO, R., ROUSI, M., BRYANT, J., SORSA, S., SIKANEN, H., and KEINäNEN, M. 1996. Chemical diversity of Betulaceae species: Comparison of phenolics and terpenoids in Northern birch species. Trees11:16-22.Google Scholar
  12. JUNTHEIKKI, M.-R., JULKUNEN-TIITTO, R., and HAGERMAN, A. 1996. Salivary tannin-binding proteins in root vole (Microtus oeconomus). Biochem. Syst. Ecol.24:25-35.Google Scholar
  13. KEINäNEN, M., and JULKUNEN-TIITTO, R. 1996. Effect of sample preparation method on birch (Betula pendulaRoth) leaf phenolics. J. Agric. Food Chem.44:2724-2727.Google Scholar
  14. LAVOLA, A., JULKUNEN-TIITTO, R., APHALO, P., DE LA ROSA, T., and LEHTO, T. 1998. The effect of UV-B radiation on UV-absorbing secondary metabolites in birch seedlings grown under simulated forest soil. New Phytol.137:617-621.Google Scholar
  15. LINDROTH, R. L., and PAJUTEE, M. S. 1987. Chemical analysis of phenolic glycosides: art, fact, and artifacts. Oecologia74:144-148.Google Scholar
  16. LINDROTH, R. L., and KOSS, P. A. 1996. Preservation of Salicaceae leaves for phytochemical analyses: Further assessment. J. Chem Ecol.22:765-771.Google Scholar
  17. MARKHAM, K. R. 1982. Techniques of Flavonoid Identification. Academic Press, London, pp. 15-16.Google Scholar
  18. MEIER, B. 1988. Analytik, chromatographisches Verhalten und potentielle Wirksamkeit der Inhaltsstoffe salicylathaltiger Arzneipflanzen Mitteleuropas. Habilitationschrift, ETH, Zürich.Google Scholar
  19. MEIER, B., JULKUNEN-TIITTO, R., TAHVANAINEN, J., and STICHER, O., 1988. Comparative high-performance liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic determination of phenolic glucosides in Salicaceae species. J. Chromatogr.442:175-186.Google Scholar
  20. ORIANS, C. M. 1995. Preserving leaves for tannin and phenolic glycoside analyses: A comparison of methods using three willow taxa. J. Chem. Ecol.21:1235-1243.Google Scholar
  21. PEARL, I. A., and DARLING, S. F. 1970. Phenolic extractives of Salix purpureabark. Phytochemistry9:1277-1281.Google Scholar
  22. PORTER, L. J., HRSTICH, L. N., and CHAN, B. G. 1986. The conversion of proanthocyanidins and prodelphinidins to cyanidins ans delphinidins. Phytochemistry25:223-230.Google Scholar
  23. SHAO, Y. 1991. Phytochemischer Atlas der Schweizer Weiden. Dissertation ETH. Nro. 9532. Zurich.Google Scholar
  24. TAHVANAINEN, J., JULKUNEN-TIITTO, R., and KETTUNEN, J. 1985. Phenolic glycosides govern the food selection pattern of willow feeding leaf beetles. Oecologia67:52-56.Google Scholar
  25. THIEME, H. 1965. Die Phenolglycoside der Salicaceen. Pharmazie20:570-574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. THIEME, H., and BENECKE, R. 1970. Die Phenolglycoside der Salicaceen. 7. Mitteilung: Ñber die glycosidführungen einheimischer bzw. in Mitteleuropa kultivierten Populus-Arten. Pharmazie25:780-788.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
    • 1
  • Sinikka Sorsa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of JoensuuJoensuuFinland

Personalised recommendations