Journal of the History of Biology

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 3–50

Redefining the X Axis: “Professionals,” “Amateurs” and the Making of Mid-Victorian Biology – A Progress Report

  • Adrian Desmond
Article

Abstract

A summary of revisionist accounts of the contextual meaning of`“professional” and “amateur,” as applied to the mid-Victorian X Club, is followed by an analysis of the liberal goals and inner tensions of this coalition of gentlemen specialists and government teachers. The changing status of amateurs is appraised, as are the new sites for the emerging laboratory discipline of “biology.” Various historiographical strategies for recovering the women’s role are considered. The relationship of science journalism to professionalization, and the constructive engagement of X Club publicists with their empowering audiences, are discussed. Finally, the article assesses how far the content and boundary closure of ``biology,'' forged by Thomas Henry Huxley, were related to `professional' and political goals. Purebiology’s social and medical roots are examined, and the way inter-professional and wider Darwinian conflicts resulted in anew lexicon of words for the X Clubbers around 1870, including“evolution” and “agnosticism,” as well as “biology.” Biology’srole in the forging of British national identity is discussed, as are its relationship to the social strategies of liberal, Dissenting, and industrial groups in the country, whose authority sustained the new laboratory rhetoric.

amateurs biology laboratory professionalization Thomas Henry Huxley Victorian life-sciences X-Club 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abir-Am, Pnina G. and Outram, Dorinda (eds.). 1987. Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science, 1789–1997. Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, David E. 1980. “The Women Members of the Botanical Society of London, 1836–1856.” British Journal for the History of Science 13: 240–254.Google Scholar
  3. ——1988. “The Biological Societies of London 1870–1914: Their Interrelationships and their Responses to Change.” The Linnean 4(3): 23–38.Google Scholar
  4. ——1998. “On Parallel Lines: Natural History and Biology from the Late Victorian Period.” Archives of Natural History 25: 361–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barczewski, Stephanie L. 2000. Myth and National Identity in Nineteenth-Century Britain: The Legends of King Arthur and Robin Hood. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Barton, Ruth. 1981. “Scientific Opposition to Technical Education.” In: Scientific and Technical Education in Early Industrial Britain, ed. M. D. Stephens and G. W. Roderick, pp. 13–27. Department Adult Education, University of Nottingham.Google Scholar
  7. ——1983. “Evolution: The Whitworth Gun in Huxley's War for the Liberation of Science from Theology.” In: The Wider Domain of Evolutionary Thought, ed. David Oldroyd and Ian Langham, pp. 261–286. Dordrecht: Reidel.Google Scholar
  8. ——1990. “ ‘An Influential Set of Chaps’: The X-Club and Royal Society Politics 1864–1885.” British Journal for the History of Science 23: 53–81.Google Scholar
  9. ——1998a. “ ‘Huxley, Lubbock, and Half a Dozen Others’: Professionals and Gentlemen in the Formation of the X Club, 1851–1864.” Isis 89: 410–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. ——1998b. “Just Before Nature: The Purposes of Science and the Purposes of Popularization in some English Popular Science Journals of the 1860s.” Annals of Science 55: 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. ——2000. “ ‘Men of Science’: Language, Identity, and the Professionalisation of British Science, 1850–1880.” Paper to the Fourth British-North American JointMeeting of BSHS, CSHPS and HSS, St. Louis.Google Scholar
  12. [Baynes, T. S.] 1873. “Darwin on Expression.” Edinburgh Review 137: 492–508.Google Scholar
  13. Becker, Bernard H. 1874. Scientific London. London: King.Google Scholar
  14. Benson, Keith R. 1985. “American Morphology in the Late Nineteenth Century: The Biology Department at Johns Hopkins University.” Journal of the History of Biology 18: 163–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berman, Morris. 1974–1975. “ ‘Hegemony’ and the Amateur Tradition in British Science.” Journal of Social History 8: 30–50.Google Scholar
  16. Bibby, Charles. 1960. T. H. Huxley: Scientist, Humanist and Educator. New York: Horizon.Google Scholar
  17. Bicheno, James Ebenezer. 1826. An Address delivered at the Anniversary of the Zoological Club...November 29. London: Taylor.Google Scholar
  18. Blake, Catriona. 1990. The Charge of the Parasols: Women's Entry to the Medical Profession. London: The Women's Press.Google Scholar
  19. Bowler, Peter J. 1989. “Holding your Head up High: Degeneration and Orthogenesis in the Theories of Human Evolution.” In: History, Humanity and Evolution, ed. James R.Moore, pp. 329–353. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Brock, W. H. 1980. “The Development of Commercial Science Journals in Victorian Britain.” In: Development of Science Publishing in Europe, ed. A. J. Meadows. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  21. Browne, Janet. 1996. “Biogeography and Empire.” In: Cultures of Natural History, ed. N. Jardine, J. A. Secord and E. C. Spary, pp. 305–321. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Bucci, Massimiano. 1998. “Images of Science in the Classroom: Wallcharts and Science Education 1850–1920.” British Journal for the History of Science 31: 161–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burkhardt, Frederick et al. (eds.). 1997. The Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Vol. 10. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Butler, Stella V. F. 1988. “Centers and Peripheries: The Development of British Physiology, 1870–1914.” Journal of the History of Biology 21: 473–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Camerini, Jane. 1997. “Remains of the Day: Early Victorians in the Field.” In: Victorian Science in Context, ed. Bernard Lightman, pp. 354–377. Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Cardwell, D. S. L. 1972. The Organization of Science in England. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  27. Caron, Joseph A. 1988. “ ‘Biology’ in the Life Sciences: A Historiographical Contribution.” History of Science 26: 223–268.Google Scholar
  28. Chadarevian, Soraya de. 1996. “Laboratory Science versus Country-House Experiments. The Controversy between Julius Sachs and Charles Darwin.” British Journal for the History of Science 29: 17–41.Google Scholar
  29. Chitnis, A. C. 1973. “Medical Education in Edinburgh, 1790–1826, and Some Victorian Social Consequences.” Medical History 17: 173–185.Google Scholar
  30. Clark, J. F. M. 1997. “ ‘The Ants Were Duly Visited’: Making Sense of John Lubbock, Scientific Naturalism and the Senses of Social Insects.” British Journal for the History of Science 30: 151–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Coleman, William. 1976. “Morphology between Type Concept and Descent Theory.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 31: 149–175.Google Scholar
  32. Collini, Stefan. 1991. Public Moralists: Political Thought and Intellectual Life in Britain 1850–1930. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Conn, Steven. 1998. Museums and American Intellectual Life, 1876–1926. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  34. Cooter, Roger. 1979. “The Power of the Body: The Early Nineteenth Century.” In: Natural Order: Historical Studies of Scientific Culture, ed. B. Barnes and S. Shapin, pp. 73–92. Beverly Hills and London: Sage.Google Scholar
  35. —— and Pumfrey, Stephen. 1994. “Separate Spheres and Public Places: Reflections on the History of Science Popularization and Science in Public Culture.” History of Science 32: 237–267.Google Scholar
  36. Cope, Zachary. 1966. “The Private Medical Schools of London (1746–1914).” In: The Evolution of Medical Education in Britain, ed. F. N. L. Poynter, pp. 89–109. London: Pitman.Google Scholar
  37. Creese, Mary R. S. and Creese, Thomas M. 1994. “British Women who Contributed to Research in the Geological Sciences in the Nineteenth Century.” British Journal for the History of Science 27: 23–54.Google Scholar
  38. Crook, Paul. 1994. Darwinism, War and History. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Darwin, Angela, and Desmond, Adrian (eds.) Forthcoming. The Thomas Henry Huxley Family Correspondence, 4 vols. University Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  40. Davies, C. Maurice. 1874. Heterodox London, 2 vols. London: Tinsley.Google Scholar
  41. Denis, Rafael Cardoso. 1995. “The Brompton Barracks:War, Peace, and the Rise of Victorian Art and Education.” Journal of Design History 8: 11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dennis, Barbara and Skilton, David (eds.). 1987. Reform and Intellectual Debate in Victorian England. Beckenham, Kent: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  43. Desmond, Adrian. 1985. “The Making of Institutional Zoology in London 1822–1836.” History of Science 23: 153–185, 224–250.Google Scholar
  44. ——1987. “Artisan Resistance and Evolution in Britain, 1819–1848.” Osiris 3: 77–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. ——1989. The Politics of Evolution: Morphology, Medicine, and Reform in Radical London. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  46. ——1997. Huxley: From Devil's Disciple to Evolution's High Priest. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley; London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  47. Di Gregorio, Mario. 1984. T. H. Huxley's Place in Natural Science. Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Ellegård, Alvar. 1990. Darwin and the General Reader. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  49. Endersby, Jim. 2000a. “A Garden Enclosed: Botanical Barter in Sydney, 1818–1839.” British Journal for the History of Science 33: 313–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. ——2000b. “Putting Plants in Their Place: Joseph Hooker and the Making of Amateurs.” Paper to Fourth British-North American Joint Meeting of BSHS, CSHPS and HSS, St. Louis.Google Scholar
  51. English, Mary P. 1990. Victorian Values: The Life and Times of Dr. Edwin Lankester. Bristol: Biopress.Google Scholar
  52. Fichman, Martin. 1997. “Biology and Politics: Defining the Boundaries.” In: Victorian Science in Context, ed. Bernard Lightman, pp. 94–118. Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Forgan, Sophie and Gooday, Graeme. 1994. “ ‘A Fungoid Assemblage of Buildings’: Diversity and Adversity in the Development of College Architecture and Scientific Education in Nineteenth-Century South Kensington.” History of Universities 13: 153–192.Google Scholar
  54. ——1996. “Constructing South Kensington: The Buildings and Politics of T. H. Huxley's Working Environment.” British Journal for the History of Science 29: 435–468.Google Scholar
  55. Foster, Michael and Lankester, E. Ray. 1898–1903. The Scientific Memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley, 5 vols. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  56. French, R. D. 1975. Antivivisection and Medical Science in Victorian Society. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Gates, Barbara T. 1997. “Revisioning Darwin with Sympathy: Arabella Buckley.” In: Natural Eloquence: Women Reinscribe Science, ed. Barbara T. Gates and Ann B. Shteir, pp. 164–176. University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  58. ——1998. Kindred Nature: Victorian and Edwardian Women Embrace the Living World. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  59. Gates, Barbara T. and Shteir, Ann B. 1997. “Introduction: Charting the Tradition.” In: Natural Eloquence: Women Reinscribe Science, ed. Barbara T. Gates and Ann B. Shteir, pp. 3–24. University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  60. Gay, Hannah. 1997. “East End, West End: Science Education, Culture and Class in Mid-Victorian London.” Canadian Journal of History 32: 153–183.Google Scholar
  61. ——Forthcoming. “ ‘Pillars of the College’: Assistants at the Royal College of Chemistry, 1846–1871.” Ambix.Google Scholar
  62. and Gay, John W. 1997. “Brothers in Science: Science and Fraternal Culture in Nineteenth-Century Britain.” History of Science 35: 425–453.Google Scholar
  63. Geison, Gerald L. 1978. Michael Foster and the Cambridge School of Physiology. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Gieryn, Thomas F. 1999. Cultural Boundaries of Science: Credibility on the Line. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  65. Gilley, Sheridan and Loades, Ann. 1981. “Thomas Henry Huxley: The War between Science and Religion.” Journal of Religion 61: 285–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gliboff, Sander. 1998. “Evolution, Revolution, and Reform in Vienna: Franz Unger's Ideas on Descent and Their Post-1848 Reception.” Journal of the History of Biology 31: 179–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gooday, Graeme. 1990. “Precision Measurement and the Genesis of Physics Teaching Laboratories in Victorian Britain.” British Journal for the History of Science 23: 25–51.Google Scholar
  68. ——1991. “ ‘Nature’ in the Laboratory: Domestication and Discipline with the Microscope in Victorian Life Science.” British Journal for the History of Science 24: 307–341.Google Scholar
  69. ——1997. “Instrumentation and Interpretation: Managing and Representing the Working Environments of Victorian Experimental Science.” In: Victorian Science in Context, ed. Bernard Lightman, pp. 409–437. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  70. Gould, Paula. 1997. “Women and the Culture of University Physics in Late Nineteenth-Century Cambridge.” British Journal for the History of Science 30: 127–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Grant, Robert E. 1833–1834. “Lectures on Comparative Anatomy and Animal Physiology.” The Lancet Parts 1 and 2 (1833–1834), 60 lectures passim.Google Scholar
  72. Gruber, Jacob W. 1991. “Does the Platypus Lay Eggs? The History of an Event in Science.” Archives of Natural History 18: 51–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hall, V. M. D. 1979. “The Contribution of the Physiologist, William Benjamin Carpenter (1813–1885), to the Development of the Principle of the Correlation of Forces and the Conservation of Energy.” Medical History 23: 129–155.Google Scholar
  74. Harrison, Brian. 1973. “Animals and the State in Nineteenth-Century England.” English Historical Review 88: 786–820.Google Scholar
  75. Harte, Negley. 1986. The University of London 1836–1986. London: Athlone Press.Google Scholar
  76. Helfand, Michael S. 1977. “T. H. Huxley's ‘Evolution and Ethics’.” Victorian Studies 20: 159–177.Google Scholar
  77. Hilton, Boyd. 2000. “The Politics of Anatomy and an Anatomy of Politics c. 1825–1850.” In: History, Religion, and Culture: British Intellectual History 1750–1950, ed. Stefan Collini, Richard Whatmore and Brian Young, pp. 179–197. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Holyoake, George Jacob. 1868. “The Priesthood of Science.” Reasoner Review 1: 1–8. Hopwood, Nick. 1999. “ ‘Giving Body’ to Embryos: Modeling, Mechanism, and the Microtome in Late Nineteenth-century Anatomy.” Isis 90: 462–496.Google Scholar
  79. Howarth, Janet. 1987. “Science Education in Late-Victorian Oxford: A Curious Case of Failure?” English Historical Review 102: 334–371.Google Scholar
  80. Howsam, Leslie. 2000. “An Experiment with Science for the Nineteenth-Century Book Trade: The International Scientific Series.” British Journal for the History of Science 33: 187–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Huxley, Leonard (ed.). 1900. Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley, 2 vols. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  82. ed. 1918. Life and Letters of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, 2 vols. London: Murray.Google Scholar
  83. Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1855. “Contemporary Literature: Science.” Westminster Review 63: 239–253.Google Scholar
  84. ——1856. “Lectures on General Natural History: Lecture I.” Medical Times and Gazette 12: 429–432; “Lecture II.” 12: 481–484.Google Scholar
  85. ——1864a. Lectures on the Elements of Comparative Anatomy. London: Churchill.Google Scholar
  86. ——1864b. “Science and ‘Church Policy’.” Reader 4: 821.Google Scholar
  87. ——1878. A Manual of the Anatomy of Invertebrated Animals. New York: Appleton.Google Scholar
  88. ——1882a [1870]. Lay Sermons, Addresses, and Reviews. New York: Appleton.Google Scholar
  89. ——1882b. Science and Culture and Other Essays. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  90. ——1887. “The Organization of Industrial Education.” Times, Mar. 21.Google Scholar
  91. ——1892. “Criticism of the Royal Society.” Nature 47: 145–146.Google Scholar
  92. ——1893a.Darwiniana. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  93. ——1893b. Method and Results. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  94. ——and Martin, H. N. 1888. A Course of Elementary Instruction in Practical Biology, Rev. G. B. Howes and D. H. Scott. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  95. Jacyna, L. S. 1980. “Science and Social Order in the Thought of A. J. Balfour.” Isis 71: 11–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. ——1981. “The Physiology of Mind, The Unity of Nature, and the Moral Order in Victorian Thought.” British Journal for the History of Science 14: 109–132.Google Scholar
  97. ——1983a. “Immanence or Transcendence: Theories of Life and Organization in Britain, 1790–1835.” Isis 74: 311–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. ——1983b. “Images of John Hunter in the Nineteenth Century.” History of Science 21: 85–108.Google Scholar
  99. Jankovic, Vladimir. 2000. “The Place of Nature and the Nature of Place: The Chorographic Challenge to the History of British Provincial Science.” History of Science 38: 79–113.Google Scholar
  100. Jarrell, Richard A. 1998. “Visionary or Bureaucrat? T. H. Huxley, the Science and Art Department and Science Teaching for theWorking Class.” Annals of Science 55: 219–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Jensen, J. Vernon. 1991. Thomas Henry Huxley: Communicating for Science. Associated University Presses.Google Scholar
  102. J. P. A. 1863. “Professor Huxley on Darwin's ‘Origin of Species’.” National Reformer 31: 2–3.Google Scholar
  103. Knight, David. 1996. “Getting Science Across.” British Journal for the History of Science 29: 129–138.Google Scholar
  104. Kohn, David. 1989. “Darwin's Ambiguity: The Secularization of Biological Meaning.” British Journal for the History of Science 22: 215–239.Google Scholar
  105. Lankester, Edwin Ray. 1871. “Instruction to Science Teachers at South Kensington.” Nature 4: 361–364.Google Scholar
  106. ——1880. Degeneration: A Chapter in Darwinism. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  107. ——1883. “Biology and the State.” In: The Advancement of Science: Occasional Essays and Addresses, ed. E. R. Lankester (1890), pp. 63–117. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  108. Lawrence, Christopher. 1998. “Medical Minds, Surgical Bodies.” In: Science Incarnate: Historical Embodiments of Natural Knowledge, ed. Christopher Lawrence and Steven Shapin, pp. 156–201. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  109. Lester, Joe, ed. and Bowler, Peter J. 1995. E. Ray Lankester and the Making of Modern British Biology. Faringdon: British Society for the History of Science.aGoogle Scholar
  110. Lightman, Bernard. 1987. The Origins of Agnosticism. Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  111. 1989. “Ideology, Evolution and Late-Victorian Agnostic Popularizers.” In: History, Humanity and Evolution, ed. James R. Moore, pp. 285–309. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  112. ——1997a. “ ‘Fighting Even With Death’: Balfour, Scientific Naturalism, and Huxley's Final Battle.” In: Thomas Henry Huxley's Place in Science and Letters: Centenary Essays, ed. Alan P. Barr, pp. 323–350. University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  113. ——1997b. “ ‘The Voices of Nature’: Popularizing Victorian Science.” In: Victorian Science in Context, ed. Bernard Lightman, pp. 187–211. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  114. Forthcoming. “ ‘Knowledge’ Confronts ‘Nature’: Richard Proctor and Popular Science Periodicals.” In: Science Serialised: Representations of the Sciences in the Nineteenth-Century Periodical Press, ed. Louise Henson, Geoffrey Cantor, Gowan Dawson, Richard Noakes, Sally Shuttleworth and Jonathan Topham.Google Scholar
  115. Lindsay, Debra. 1998. “Intimate Intimates: Wives, Households, and Science in Nineteenth-Century America.” Isis 89: 631–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lorimer, Douglas A. 1988. “Theoretical Racism in Late Victorian Anthropology, 1870–1900.” Victorian Studies 31: 405–430.Google Scholar
  117. Lyons, Sherrie L. 1999. Thomas Henry Huxley: The Evolution of a Scientist. Amherst: Promethius.Google Scholar
  118. MacLeod, Roy M. 1980. “Evolutionism, Internationalism and Commercial Enterprise in Science: The International Scientific Series 1871–1910.” In: Development of Science Publishing in Europe, ed. A. J. Meadows, pp. 63–93. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  119. ——1983. “Whigs and Savants: Reflections on the Reform Movement in the Royal Society, 1830–1848.” In: Metropolis and Province: Science in British Culture, 1780–1850, ed. Ian Inkster and Jack Morrell, 1983, pp. 55–90. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  120. ——1996. Public Science and Public Policy in Victorian England. Aldershot: Variorum.Google Scholar
  121. Mandler, Peter. 2000. “ ‘Race’ and ‘Nation’ in mid-Victorian Thought.” In: History, Religion, and Culture: British Intellectual History 1750–1950, ed. Stefan Collini, Richard Whatmore and Brian Young, pp. 224–244. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  122. Marsh, Joss. 1998. Word Crimes: Blasphemy, Culture, and Literature in Nineteenth-Century England. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  123. Mivart, St George Jackson. 1897. “Some Reminiscences of Thomas Henry Huxley.” Nineteenth Century 42: 985–998.Google Scholar
  124. Moore, James R. 1979. The Post-Darwinian Controversies: A Study of the Protestant Struggle to Come to Terms with Darwin in Great Britain and America, 1870–1900. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  125. ——1982. “Charles Darwin Lies in Westminster Abbey.” Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 17: 97–113.Google Scholar
  126. ——1986. “Socializing Darwinism: Historiography and the Fortunes of a Phrase.” In: Science as Politics, ed. L. Levidow, pp. 38–80. London: Free Association Books.Google Scholar
  127. ——1988a. “Freethought, Secularism, Agnosticism: The Case of Charles Darwin.” In: Religion in Victorian Britain, ed. G. Parsons, Volume 1, pp. 274–319. Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  128. ——(ed.). 1988b. Religion in Victorian Britain, Volume 3: Sources. Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  129. ——1990. “Theodicy and Society: The Crisis of the Intelligentsia.” In: Victorian Faith in Crisis, ed. R. Helmstadter and B. Lightman, pp. 153–186. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  130. ——1991. “Deconstructing Darwinism: The Politics of Evolution in the 1860s.” Journal of the History of Biology 24: 353–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. ——1997. “Green Gold: The Riches of Baron Ferdinand von Mueller.” Historical Records of Australian Science 11: 371–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Morrell, Jack B. 1973. “The Patronage of Mid-Victorian Science in the University of Edinburgh.” Science Studies 3: 353–388.Google Scholar
  133. Morus, Iwan Rhys. 1999. “The Measure ofMan: Technologizing the Victorian Body.” History of Science 37: 249–282.Google Scholar
  134. Naval Assistant-Surgeon. 1840–1841. “Naval Assistant-Surgeons.” Lancet 1: 869–870.Google Scholar
  135. Nye, Robert A. 1997. “Medicine and Science as Masculine ‘Fields of Honor’.” In: Women, Gender, and Science: New Directions, ed. Sally Kohlstedt and Helen E. Longino, Osiris, vol. 12, pp. 60–79.Google Scholar
  136. Nyhart, Lynn K. 1987. “The Disciplinary Breakdown of German Morphology, 1870–1900.” Isis 78: 365–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 1995. Biology Takes Form: Animal Morphology and the German Universities 1800– 1900. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  138. 1996. “Natural History and the ‘New Biology’.” In: Cultures of Natural History, ed. N. Jardine, J. A. Secord and E. C. Spary, pp. 426–443. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  139. Outram, Dorinda. 1996. “New Spaces in Natural History.” In: Cultures of Natural History, ed. N. Jardine, J. A. Secord and E. C. Spary, pp. 249–265. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  140. Paradis, James G. 1978. T. H. Huxley: Man's Place in Nature. University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  141. 1989. “Evolution and Ethics in Its Victorian Context.” In: Evolution and Ethics, ed. J.G. Paradis and G. C. Williams, pp. 3–55. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  142. Pauly, P. J. 1984. “The Appearance of Academic Biology in Late Nineteenth-Century America.” Journal of the History of Biology 17: 369–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Parker, T. Jeffrey. 1896. “Professor Huxley.” Natural Science 8: 161–167. Pickstone, John. 1993. “Ways of Knowing: Towards a Historical Sociology of Science, Technology and Medicine.” British Journal for the History of Science 26: 433–458.Google Scholar
  144. ——1994. “Museological Science? The Place of the Analytical/Comparative in Nineteenth-Century Science, Technology and Medicine.” History of Science 32: 111–138.Google Scholar
  145. Plunkett, Steven J. Forthcoming. “Ipswich Museum Moralities in the 1840s and 1850s.” In: ed. C. Harper-Bill.Google Scholar
  146. Pycior, Helena M., Slack, Nancy G. and Abir-Am, Pnina G. (ed.). 1996. Creative Couples in the Sciences. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  147. Reuben, Julie A. 1996. The Making of the Modern University: Intellectual Transformation and the Marginalization of Morality. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  148. Richards, Evelleen. 1983. “Darwin and the Descent of Woman.” In: The Wider Domain of Evolutionary Thought, ed. David Oldroyd and Ian Langham, pp. 57–111. Dordrecht: Reidel.Google Scholar
  149. 1989a. “The ‘Moral Anatomy’ of Robert Knox.” Journal of the History of Biology 22: 373–436.Google Scholar
  150. ——1989b. “Huxley and Woman's Place in Science.” In: History, Humanity and Evolution, ed. James R. Moore, pp. 253–284. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  151. ——1997. “Redrawing the Boundaries: Darwinian Science and Victorian Women Intellectuals.” In: Victorian Science in Context, ed. Bernard Lightman, pp. 119–142. Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  152. Richmond, Marsha L. 1997. “ ‘A Lab of One's Own’: The Balfour Biological Laboratory for Women at Cambridge University, 1884–1914.” Isis 88: 422–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. ——2000. “T. H. Huxley's Criticism of German Cell Theory: An Epigenetic and Physiological Interpretation of Cell Structure.” Journal of the History of Biology 33: 247–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Ritvo, Harriet. 1987. The Animal Estate: The English and Other Creatures in the Victorian Age. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  155. Roos, David A. 1977. “Matthew Arnold and Thomas Henry Huxley: Two Speeches at the Royal Academy, 1881 and 1883.” Modern Philology 74: 316–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. ——1981. “The ‘Aims and Intentions’ of Nature.” In: Victorian Science and Victorian Values, ed. J. G. Paradis and T. Postlewait, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 360, pp. 159–180.Google Scholar
  157. Rothblatt, Sheldon. 1968. The Revolution of the Dons: Cambridge and Society in Victorian England. London: Faber.Google Scholar
  158. Rupke, Nicolaas A. 1983. The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and the English School of Geology (1814–1849). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  159. ——1988. “The Road to Albertopolis: Richard Owen (1804–1892) and the Founding of the British Museum of Natural History.” In: Science, Politics and the Public Good, ed. N. A. Rupke, pp. 63–89. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  160. ——1994. Richard Owen: Victorian Naturalist. Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  161. Ruse, Michael. 1997. “Thomas Henry Huxley and the Status of Evolution as Science.” In: Thomas Henry Huxley's Place in Science and Letters: Centenary Essays, ed.Alan P.Barr, pp. 140–158. University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  162. Russell, Colin A. 1996. Edward Frankland: Chemistry, Controversy and Conspiracy in Victorian England. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  163. Schaffer, Simon. 1997. “Metrology, Metrication, and Victorian Values.” In: Victorian Science in Context, ed. Bernard Lightman, pp. 438–474. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  164. Schwartz, Joel S. 1999. “Robert Chambers and Thomas Henry Huxley, Science Correspondents: The Popularization and Dissemination of Nineteenth Century Natural Science.” Journal of the History of Biology 32: 343–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Secord, Anne. 1994a. “Science in the Pub: Artisan Botanists in Early Nineteenth-Century Lancashire.” History of Science 32: 269–315.Google Scholar
  166. ——1994b. “Corresponding Interests: Artisans and Gentlemen in Nineteenth-Century Natural History.” British Journal for the History of Science 27: 383–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Secord, James A. 1982. “King of Siluria: Roderick Murchison and the Imperial Theme in Nineteenth-Century British Geology.” Victorian Studies 25: 413–442.Google Scholar
  168. ——1986. “The Geological Survey of Great Britain as a Research School, 1839–1855.” History of Science 24: 223–275.Google Scholar
  169. ——2000. Victorian Sensation: The Extraordinary Publication, Reception, and Secret Authorship of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  170. Shapin, Steven. 1994. A Social History of Truth: Civility and Science in Seventeenth-Century England. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  171. ——1998. “The Philosopher and the Chicken: On the Dietetics of Disembodied Knowledge.” In: Science Incarnate: Historical Embodiments of Natural Knowledge, ed. Christopher Lawrence and Steven Shapin, pp. 21–50. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  172. Sheets-Pyenson, Susan. 1985. “Popular Scientific Periodicals in Paris and London.” Annals of Science 42: 549–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Sloan, Phillip R. 1985. “Darwin's Invertebrate Program, 1826–1836: Preconditions for Transformism.” In: The Darwinian Heritage, ed. David Kohn, pp. 71–120. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  174. Smith, Roger. 1973. “The Background of Physiological Psychology in Natural Philosophy.” British Journal for the History of Science 6: 75–123.Google Scholar
  175. Stapleton, Julia. 2000. “Political Thought and National Identity in Britain, 1850–1950.” In: History, Religion, and Culture: British Intellectual History 1750–1950, ed. Stefan Collini, Richard Whatmore, and Brian Young, pp. 245–269. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  176. Star, Susan L. and Griesemer, James R. 1989. “Institutional Ecology, ‘Translations’ and Boundary Objects: Amateurs and Professionals in Berkleley's Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 1907–1939.” Social Studies of Science 19: 387–429.Google Scholar
  177. Stearn, William T. 1981. The Natural History Museum at South Kensington. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  178. Stocking, George W. 1971. “What's in a Name? The Origins of the Royal Anthropological Institute (1837–1871).” Man 6: 369–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. ——1987. Victorian Anthropology. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  180. Strick, James. 1999. “Darwinism and the Origin of Life: The Role of H. C. Bastian in the British Spontaneous Generation Debates, 1868–1873.” Journal of the History of Biology 32: 51–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. ——2000. Sparks of Life: Darwinism and the Victorian Debates Over Spontaneous Generation. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  182. —— (ed.). 2001. Evolution and the Spontaneous Generation Debate, 6 vols. Thoemmes Press: Bristol.Google Scholar
  183. Sturdy, Steve and Cooter, Roger. 1998. “Science, ScientificManagement, and the Transformation of Medicine in Britain c. 1870–1950.” History of Science 36: 421–466.Google Scholar
  184. Taylor, M.W. 1992. Men Versus the State: Herbert Spencer and Late Victorian Individualism. Clarendon Press: Oxford.Google Scholar
  185. Tener, Robert H. and Woodfield, Malcolm (eds.). 1991. A Victorian Spectator: Uncollected Writings of R. H. Hutton. Bristol: Bristol Press.Google Scholar
  186. Thackray, Arnold. 1974. “Natural Knowledge in Cultural Context: The Manchester Model.” American Historical Review 79: 672–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Thiselton-Dyer, W. T. 1925. “Plant Biology in the Seventies.” Nature 115: 709–712.Google Scholar
  188. Topham, Jonathan R. 2000. “Book History and the Sciences: Introduction.” British Journal for the History of Science 33: 155–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Tucker, Jennifer. 1997. “Photography as Witness, Detective, and Impostor: Visual Representation in Victorian Science.” In: Victorian Science in Context, ed. Bernard Lightman, pp. 378–408. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  190. Turner, Frank M. 1993. Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  191. Underhill, Paul. 1992. “Alternative Views of Science in Intra-Professional Conflict: General Practitioners and the Medical and Surgical Elite 1815–1858.” Journal of Historical Sociology 5: 322–350.Google Scholar
  192. Van Riper, A. Bowdoin. 1993. Men among the Mammoths: Victorian Science and the Discovery of Prehistory. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  193. Wells, H. G. 1901. “Huxley.” Science Schools Journal (April): 209–211.Google Scholar
  194. White, Paul. 1996. “Science at Home: The Space Between Henrietta Heathorn and Thomas Huxley.” History of Science 34: 33–56.Google Scholar
  195. ——1997. “Genius in Public and Private.” In: Thomas Henry Huxley's Place in Science and Letters: Centenary Essays, ed. Alan P. Barr, pp. 213–258. University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  196. Winsor, Mary P. 1976. Starfish, Jellyfish, and the Order of Life. Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  197. ——1991. Reading the Shape of Nature: Comparative Zoology at the Agassiz Museum. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  198. ——Forthcoming. “Museums.” Cambridge History of Science.Google Scholar
  199. Winter, Alison. 1997. “The Construction of Orthodoxies and Heterodoxies in the Early Victorian Life Sciences.” In: Victorian Science in Context, ed. Bernard Lightman, pp. 24–50. Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  200. Winter, Alison. 1998. Mesmerized. Powers of Mind in Victorian Britain. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrian Desmond
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity College LondonLondonU.K.

Personalised recommendations