Biological Invasions

, Volume 1, Issue 2–3, pp 215–222

Norway Maple (Acer platanoides) Invasion of a Natural Forest Stand: Understory Consequence and Regeneration Pattern

  • Patrick H. Martin
Article

Abstract

Norway maple (Acer platanoidesis) is invasive in a natural stand in suburban Ithaca, NY. To determine the understory pattern and consequences of a Norway maple invasion, I compared density and species richness under Norway maples and sugar maples (Acer saccharum). Mean sapling density was significantly lower (P<0.0027) under Norway maples (3.64/100 m2±1.6 SE) than under sugar maples (19.4/100 m2±4.4 SE). Mean sapling species richness was significantly lower (P<0.0018) under Norway maples (0.7/32 m2±0.18 SE) than under sugar maples (2.6/32 m2±0.48 SE). Likewise, Norway maple regeneration is more frequent under sugar maples than sugar maple regeneration: 57% of sugar maple plots had Norway maple saplings while 0% of Norway maple plots had sugar maple saplings. Two significant plot effects were found for presence–absence: Norway maple saplings grow under Norway maples with a significantly lower frequency (P<0.03) than under sugar maples; sugar maple saplings grow under Norway maples with a significantly lower frequency (P<0.000) than under sugar maples. Across the site, Norway maple saplings were the most abundant (29 saplings for 480 m2). The success of Norway maple regeneration and the reductions in total stem density beneath Norway maples is most likely the result of its strong competitive abilities, notably its high shade tolerance and abundant seed crops.

Acer platanoides Acer saccharum biodiversity competition invasive species regeneration understory 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Cronk QCB and Fuller JL (1995) Plant Invaders: The Threat to Natural Ecosystems. Chapman & Hall, London, 233 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Dahlsten DL and Garcia R (eds) (1992) Eradication of Exotic Pests. Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 287 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. George Safford Torrey Herbarium (1996) List of non-native invasive vascular plants in Connecticut. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  4. James PD and McFadden DA (1993) Norway Maple as biological invader of beech-sugar maple-oak forest. Bulletin of Ecology Society of America 74(2nd Suppl): 300–302Google Scholar
  5. Kloeppel BD and Abrams MD (1995) Ecophysiological attributes of the native Acer saccharum and the exotic Acer platanoides in urban oak forests in Pennsylvania, USA. Tree Physiology 15(11): 739–746Google Scholar
  6. Marks PL and Gardescu S (1998) A case study of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) as a forest seedling bank species. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 125(4): 287–296Google Scholar
  7. Matlack GR (1987) Diaspore size, shape, and fall behavior in wind-dispersed plants. American Journal of Botany 74: 1150–1160Google Scholar
  8. McKnight BN (ed) (1993) Biological Pollution: The Control and Impact of Invasive Exotic Species, Proceedings of a Symposium held at the University Place Conference Center, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indiana, 25–26 October 1991, 253 ppGoogle Scholar
  9. Minitab Inc. (1998) Minitab for Windows, Release 12Google Scholar
  10. Mooney HA, Cushman JH, Medina W, Sala OE and Schulze ED (eds) (1996) Functional Roles of Biodiversity: A Global Perspective. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 325 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Nowak DJ and Rowntree RA (1990) History and range of Norway maple. Journal of Arboriculture 16(11): 291–296Google Scholar
  12. Pacala SW (1997) Dynamics of plant communities. In: Crawley M (ed) Plant Ecology, pp 532–555. Blackwell Scientific, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  13. Sachse U (1988) The anthropogenic spread of Sycamore and Norway maple and their ecological requirements with special reference to Berlin. PhD Thesis, Berlin Technical University, Berlin, Germany, 150 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Soil Conservation Service (1965) Soil Survey: Tompkins County New York. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, 119 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Webb SL and Kaunzinger CK (1993) Biological invasion of the Drew University New Jersey Forest Preserve by Norway Maple (Acer platanoides L.). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 120: 343–349Google Scholar
  16. Wyckoff PH and Webb SL (1996) Understory influence of the invasive Norway maple (Acer platanoides). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 123(3): 197–205Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick H. Martin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Natural ResourcesCornell UniversityIthacaUSA (e-mail

Personalised recommendations