Journal of Educational Change

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 135–154 | Cite as

Powerful Learning, Powerful Teaching and Powerful Schools

  • David Hopkins


This paper is a personal reflection on the purpose and scope of school improvement. In explaining why in education the more things change the more they stay the same, I clarify the focus of educational reform as being powerful learning on the part of students, and then demonstrate that this occurs in contexts where content is conceptual rather than particular, where learning is constructive inquiry not passive reception, and where the social climate is expansive instead of restrictive. Such classrooms exist in schools whose organisational conditions and cultures are characterised by high expectations, collaboration and innovation. Finally I argue that equity and high standards require a coherent policy framework that emphasises process as well as substance.


Education Research High Standard High Expectation Policy Framework Educational Reform 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adey, P. & Shayer, M. (1990). Accelerating the development of formal thinking in middle and high school students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(3), 267–285.Google Scholar
  2. Adey, P. & Shayer, M. (1994). Really Raising Standards. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Ainscow, M., Hopkins, D., Southworth, G. & West, M. (1994). Creating the Conditionsfor School Improvement. London: David Fulton Publishers.Google Scholar
  4. Brophy, J. & Good, T. (1986). Teacher behaviour and student achievement. In M. Wittrock (ed), Handbook of Research on Teaching, 3rd edn. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  5. Bruner, J. (1966). Towards a Theory of Instruction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Creemers, B. (1994). The Effective Classroom. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  7. Edmonds, R.R. (1979). Effective schools for the urban poor. Educational Leadership 37(1), 15–27.Google Scholar
  8. Elmore, R. (1995). Teaching, learning, and school organization: Principles of practice and the regularities of schooling. Educational Administration Quarterly 31(3), 355–374.Google Scholar
  9. Fullan, M. (1992). Successful School Improvement. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Fullan, M. (1993). Change Forces. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  11. Gray, J. (1990). The quality of schooling: Frameworks for judgement. British Journal of Educational Studies 38(3), 203–223.Google Scholar
  12. Gray, J., Hopkins, D., Reynolds, D., Wilcox, B., Farrell, S. & Jesson, D. (1999). Improving Schools - Performance and Potential. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Hargreaves, A., Lieberman, A., Fullan, M. & Hopkins, D. (eds) (1998). International Handbook of Educational Change (in 4 volumes). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. Hargreaves, A. & Fullan, M. (1998). What's Worth Fighting For Out There. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  15. Hargreaves, D.H. & Hopkins, D. (1991). The Empowered School. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  16. Hopkins, D. (1993). A Teacher's Guide to Classroom Research, 2nd edn. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Hopkins, D. (1996). Quality teachers and the language of teaching. Education Review (Winter) 10(2), 18–25.Google Scholar
  18. Hopkins, D., Ainscow, M. & West, M. (1994). School Improvement in an Era of Change. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  19. Hopkins, D., Harris, A. & Jackson, D. (1997). Understanding the school's capacity for development. School Leadership and Management 17(3), 401–411.Google Scholar
  20. Hopkins, D. & MacGilchrist, B. (1998). Development planning for pupil achievement. School Leadership and Management 18(3), 409–424.Google Scholar
  21. Hopkins, D. & Stern, D. (1996). Quality teachers, quality schools. Teaching and Teacher Education (Winter) 12(5), 501–517.Google Scholar
  22. Hopkins, D. & West, M. (1994). Teacher development and school improvement. In D. Walling (ed.), Teachers as Learners. Bloomington, IN: PDK.Google Scholar
  23. Hopkins, D., West, M. & Ainscow, M. (1996). Improving the Quality of Education for All. London: David Fulton Publishers.Google Scholar
  24. Hopkins, D., West, M. & Beresford, J. (1998). Creating the conditions for classroom and teacher development. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice 4(1), 115–141.Google Scholar
  25. Hopkins, D., West, M., Harris, A., Ainscow, M. & Beresford, J. (1997). Creating the Conditions for Classroom Improvement. London: David Fulton Publishers.Google Scholar
  26. Hopkins, D. (2000). Seeing School Improvement Whole. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  27. Joyce, B., Calhoun, E. & Hopkins, D. (1997). Models of Learning - Tools for Teaching. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Joyce, B. & Showers, B. (1991). Information Processing Models of Teaching. Aptos, CA: Booksend Laboratories.Google Scholar
  29. Joyce, B. & Showers, B. (1995). Student Achievement Through Staff Development, 2nd edn. White Plains, NY: Longman.Google Scholar
  30. Joyce, B. & Weil, M. (1996). Models of Teaching, 5th edn. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  31. Joyce, B., Wolf, J. & Calhoun, E. (1993). The Self Renewing School. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.Google Scholar
  32. McLaughlin, M. (1990). The Rand change agent study revisited: Macro perspectives, micro realities. Educational Researcher 19(9), 11–16.Google Scholar
  33. Reynolds, D. & Cuttance, P. (eds) (1992). School Effectiveness. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  34. Rudduck, J., Chaplain, R. & Wallace, G. (1996). School Improvement: What Can Pupils Tell Us? London: David Fulton Publishers.Google Scholar
  35. Sharan, S. & Shachar, H. (1988). Language and Learning in the Co-operative Classroom. New York: Springler-Verlag.Google Scholar
  36. Slavin, R. & Fashola, O. (1998). Show Me the Evidence! Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  37. Stenhouse, L. (1975). An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development. London: Heinemann Educational Books.Google Scholar
  38. Walberg, H. (1990). Productive teaching and instruction: assessing the knowledge base. Phi Delta Kappan 71(6), 470–478.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Hopkins
    • 1
  1. 1.University of NottinghamNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations