Iodine Effects on the Thyroid Gland: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects

  • Kenneth D. Burman
  • Leonard Wartofsky
iodine thyroid symporter 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Nuovo JA, Wartofsky L. Adverse Effects of Iodine. In: Becker KL, ed., Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. second edition. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co. 1995; pages 332–338.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Benvenga S, Alesci S, Trimarchi F, Facchiano A. Homologies of the thyroid sodium-iodide symporter with bacterial and viral proteins. J Endocrinol Invest 1999;22:535–540.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Spitzweg C, John W, Eisenmenger W, Heufelder AE. Analysis of human sodium iodide symporter gene expression in extrathyroidal tissues and cloning of its complementary deoxyribonucleic acids from salivary gland, mammary gland, and gastric mucosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:1746–1751.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Morris JC, Bergert ER, Bryant WP. Binding of immunoglobulin G from patients with autoimmune thyroid disease to rat sodiumiodide symporter peptides: evidence for the iodide transporter as an autoantigen. Thyroid 1997;7:527–534.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vroye L, Beauwens R, Van Sande J, Daloze D, Braekman JC, Goldstein PE. The Na + /I-cotransporter of the thyroid: characterization of new inhibitors. Pflugers Arch 1998;435:259–266.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Joba W, Spitzweg C, Schriever K, Heufelder AE. Analysis of human sodium/iodide symporter, thyroid transcription factor-1, and paired-box-protein-8 gene expression in benign thyroid disease. Thyroid 1999;9:455–466.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vagenakis AG, Braverman LE. Adverse effects of iodide on thyroid function. Med Clin North Amer 1975;59:1075.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wolff J. Iodide goiter and the pharmacologic effects of excess iodide. Am J Med 1969;47:101.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fradkin JL, Wolff J. Iodide induced thyrotoxicosis. Medicine 1983;62:1.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Savoie JC, Massin JP, Thomopoulis P, Leger F. Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis in apparently normal glands. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1975;4:685.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    DeGroot LJ. Kinetic analysis of iodine metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1966;26:149.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pohlenz J, Refetoff S. Mutations in the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene as a cause for iodide transport defects and congenital hypothyroidism. Biochimie 1999;81:469–476.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Burman KD. Recent developments in thyroid hormone metabolism: Interpretation and significance of measurements of reverse T3, 3,3′T2, thyroglobulin. Metabolism 1978;27:615–630.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cooper DS, Axelrod L, DeGroot LJ, Vickery AL, Jr., Maloof F. Congenital goiter and the development of metastatic follicular carcinoma with evidence for a leak of nonhormonal iodide: clinical, pathological, kinetic, and biochemical studies and a review of the literature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1981;52:294–306.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Park YK, Harland BF, Vanderveen JE, Prosky L, Shank FR. Estimation of dietary iodine intake of Americans in recent years. J Am Diet Assoc 1981;79:17.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Hannon WH, Flanders DW, Gunter EW, Maberey GF, Braverman LE, Pinos S, Miller DT, Garbe PL, Delozier DM, Jackson RJ. Iodine nutrition in the United States. Trends and public health implications: Iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition Examination surveys I and III (1971–1974 and 1988–1994). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:3401–3408.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Freeman SJ, Girolamo RF. Radioisotopes and their use in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease. Clin Geriatr Med 1995;11:189–218.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gardner DF, Centor RM, Utiger RD. Effects of low dose iodide supplementation on thyroid function in normal men. Clin Endocrinol 1988;28:283.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wartofsky L, Ransil BJ, Ingbar SH. Inhibition by iodine of the release of thyroxine from the thyroid glands of normal subjects and patients with thyrotoxicosis. J Clin Invest 1970;49:787.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Braverman LE, Ingbar SH, Vagenakis AG. Enhanced susceptibility to iodide myxedema in patients with Hashimoto's disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1971;32:515.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Delange F, Chanoine JP, Abrassart C, Bourdoux P. Topical iodine, breast feeding, and neonatal hypothyroidism. Arch Dis Child 1978;53:495.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Braverman LE, Woeber KA, Ingbar SH. Induction of myxedema by iodide in patients euthyroid after radioiodine or surgical treatment of diffuse toxic goiter. N Engl J Med 1969;281:816.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lesher JL, Jr., Fitch MH, Dunlap DB. Subclinical hypothyroidism during potassium iodide therapy for lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis. Cutis 1994;53:128.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roti E, Gardini E, Minelle R, et al. Effects of chronic iodine administration on thyroid status in euthyroid subjects previously treated with antithyroid drugs for Graves' hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993;76:928.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shen DC, Wu SY, Chopra IJ, Huang HW, Shian LR, Bian TY, Jeng CY, Solomon DH. Long term treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism with sodium ipodate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985;61:723–727.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Martino E, Aghini-Lombardi F, Mariotto S, et al. Amiodarone: a common source of iodine induced thyrotoxicosis. Horm Res 1987;26:158.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Davies PH, Franklyn JA, Sheppard MC. Treatment of amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis with carbimazole alone and continuation of amiodarone. BMJ 1992;305:224.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stanbury JB, Ermans AE, Bourdoux P, Todd C, Oken E, Tonglet R, Vidor G, Braverman LE, Madeiros-Neto G. Iodine induced hyperthyroidism: occurrence and epidemiology. Thyroid 1998;8:83–100.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Braverman L, Grasso L, Brogioni S, Aghini-Lombardi F, Braverman LE, Martino E. Serum interleukin-6 in amiodaroneinduced thyrotoxicosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;78:423–427.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Namba H, Yamashita S, Kimura H, et al. Evidence of thyroid volume increase in normal subjects receiving excess iodine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993;76:605.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Eng PH, Cardonea GR, Fang SL, Previti M, Alex S, Carrasco N, Chin WW, Braverman LE. Escape from the Wolff-Chaikoff effect is associated with a decrease in thyroid sodium/iodine symporter messenger ribonucleic acid and protein. Endocrinology 1999;140:3404–3410.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wolff J, Chaikoff IL. Plasma inorganic iodide as a homeostatic regulator of thyroid function. J Biol Chem 1948;174:555.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Burman KD, Hyperthyroidism. In: Becker KL, ed., Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Second Edition, Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1995;367–385.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Boehm TM, Burman KD, Barnes S, Wartofsky L. Lithium and iodide combination treatment for thyrotoxicosis. Acta Endocrino logica 1980;94:174–183.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vagenakis AG, Wang C, Burger A, all authors. Iodide-induced thyrotoxicosis in Boston. N Engl J Med 1972;287:524.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ross DS, Daniels GH, De Stefano P, Maloof F, Ridgway EC. Use of adjunctive potassium iodide after radioactive iodine (131I) treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983;57:250–253.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kamel N, Uysal AR, Kologlu S, Erdogan G, Senel M, Polai H. Odium ipodate in the treatment of toxic diffuse goiter. Short-term and long-term effects on thyrotoxicosis. Endocrinologie 1998;26:99–105.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tomaski SM, Mahoney EM, Burgess LP, Raines KB, Bornemann M. Sodium ipodate(oragrafin) in the preoperative preparation of Graves' hyperthyroidism. Laryngoscope 1997;107:1066–1070.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bagchi N, Brown TR, Sundick RS. Thyroid cell injury is an initial event in the induction of autoimmune thyroiditis by iodine in obese strain chickens. Endocrinology 1995;136:5054–5050.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hutchings PR, Verma S, Phillips JM, Harach SZ, Howlett S, Cooke A. Both CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells are required for iodine accelerated thyroiditis in NOD mice. Cell Immunol 1999;192:113–121.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Suzuki K, Lavaroni S, Mori A, Ohta M, Saito J, Pietrarelli M, Singer DS, Kimura S, Katoh R, Kawaol A, Kohn LD. Autoregulation of thyroid-specific gene transcription by thyroglobulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1998;95:8251–8256.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Marino M, Chiovato L, Friedlander JA, Latrofa F, Pinchera A, McCluskey RT. Serum antibodies against megalin (GP330) in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. J Cline Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:2468–2474.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth D. Burman
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Leonard Wartofsky
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Section of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, and MedStar Research InstituteWashington Hospital CenterWashington
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesda
  3. 3.Endocrine SectionWashington Hospital CenterUSA
  4. 4.Department of MedicineWashington Hospital CenterWashington

Personalised recommendations