Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 387–401

Partial CO2 Rebreathing Cardiac Output – Operating Principles of the NICO™ System

  • Michael B. Jaffe

DOI: 10.1023/A:1009981313076

Cite this article as:
Jaffe, M.B. J Clin Monit Comput (1999) 15: 387. doi:10.1023/A:1009981313076


The partial rebreathing method of cardiac output estimation is reviewed with a particular focus on its application for continuous monitoring, rebreathing and implementations and from both a historical and technical perspective. The assumptions of the method are discussed as well as the various implementations. The NICO monitor and rebreathing valve are described from a functional view. The clinical data including (a) comparisons between bolus thermodilution and continuous thermodilution in patients in the OR setting, (b) comparisons to continuous thermodilution with both the Baxter and Abbott continuous cardiac output devices and (c) comparison between different means of shunt correction are presented. Compared to conventional cardiac output methods, the partial CO2 rebreathing technique is non-invasive, can easily be automated and can provide real-time and continuous cardiac output monitoring. Taking advantage of modern sophisticated sensor and signal processing technology and integrating multiple monitored physiological variables the NICO monitor is the first commercially available cardiac output system making use of the partial rebreathing of CO2.

Cardiac output pulmonary capillary blood flow Fick equation partial rebreathing carbon dioxide elimination non-invasive 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael B. Jaffe
    • 1
  1. 1.Novametrix Medical SystemsInc., 5 Technology DriveWallingfordU.S.A

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