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Environmental risk assessment of anthropogenic activity in the deep-sea

  • Ahmed Ahnert
  • Christian Borowski
Article

Abstract

The mining for mineral resources and the disposal of wastematerials are the major potential sources of environmental hazard for the deep-seasystem. Polymetallic nodules, manganese crusts, metalliferous sulphidic muds and massiveconsolidated sulphides might serve as exploitable sources of various metals, whilstphosporite deposits represent a further resource. The main types of waste targeted for deep-seadisposal are munitions, radioactive wastes, large offshore structures, sewage sludge anddredge spoils. Furthermore, it has recently been proposed to introduce hugequantities of carbon dioxide from industrial processes into the deep ocean in order tomitigate the greenhouse effect. A description of the different mineral resources and wastematerials is given, including information on the related technology and the status of thedumping and mining operations, respectively. The predicted effects of waste disposaland mining on the deep-seaenvironment are reviewed, possible impacts including removalof settling benthic substrate and mechanical stress exerted on soft bottomcommunities, plus impacts of sediment plumes, toxic materials and degradable organic matter.An overview of the major environmental studies in the deep sea is given. Twocategories of study can be discerned, research conducted after environmental impacts (e.g.,the monitoring of contamination by sewage sludge disposal off the New York Bight)and precautionary environmental studies on potential impacts threatening the deepsea environment in connection with its future human use (i.e., studies aiming toassess the possible effects of deep-sea mining). The development of large scale in-situexperiments was a new approach to the environmental risk assessment of nodule mining inthe deep sea. In the course of the DISCOL project in the south-east Pacific, the firstexperiment of this kind was implemented and monitored for three years. Another type oflarge-scale in-situexperimentation in the deep sea is represented by the BenthicImpact Experiments (BIEs) which have been conducted with similar experimental design by anumber of nations or multinational consortia. Since environmental impacts derivingfrom human penetration into the deep sea on an industrial scale are expected to besevere and long-lasting, a precautionary approach in the related environmental researchseems most appropriate. It is therefore proposed that environmental risk assessment in thedeep sea should rely on in-situ experiments which should start from a simulation ofsmall-scale impacts and proceed stepwise to the monitoring of a full-scale industrialoperation. At each stage impacts need to be evaluated thoroughly.

deep-sea communities benthos disturbance environmental risk assessment monitoring large-scale experiment sewage contamination mineral mining 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed Ahnert
    • 1
  • Christian Borowski
    • 2
  1. 1.Friedrich-Kücken-Straße 7BleckedeGermany
  2. 2.Zoologisches Institut und MuseumUniversität HamburgHamburgGermany

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