Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The impact of European Directives on estuarine and coastal science and management

Abstract

Many recent developments in European marine and estuarine science have been against the demands of European Union legislation. The implementation of certain statutes, the role of scientists and the nature of the data required are discussed using examples from the UK, the Netherlands and Portugal. This includes the implementation of the EU Directives on Urban Waste-water Treatment, the control of Nitrates, the designation of Species and Habitats, the control of Dangerous Substances, the statutory requirement for Environmental Impact Assessments and the recently proposed Water Framework Directive. For these, the integration of physical, chemical and biological monitoring and investigation is discussed in relation to the science dictated by the legislative and administrative requirements. Each of these Directives requires the development of generic guidelines and protocols for implementation and the use of national enabling legislation. This indicates that, in several cases, the science should concentrate on monitoring and assessment in a well-structured and quality-controlled manner. The paper concludes by summarising developments based on similarities in the implementation of present and proposed Directives across Europe.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bayne BL, Clarke KR and Gray JS (eds) (1988) Biological Effects of Pollutants. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 46(1–3): 1–278

  2. Cabral MJ (1997) A Rede Natura 2000. Cidades and Municípios, Ano III(68): 22–25.

  3. Commission of the European Communities (1997a) Proposal for a Council Directive establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy (COM(97) 49 final). Document COM(97) 614 final, 97/0067 (SYN). Brussels, Belgium

  4. Commission of the European Communities (1997b) Amended Proposal for a Council Directive establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy (COM(97) 49 final). Document XI/693/97. Brussels, Belgium

  5. Commission of the European Communities (1998) Draft Amendment to the Proposal for a Council Directive establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy — Annex 5. Working Document SN/1308/98, OR.EN. General Secretariat of the Council. Brussels, Belgium

  6. CSTT (1994) Comprehensive studies for the purposes of Article 6 of Directive 91/271 EEC The Urban Waste-water Directive. Forth River Purification Board, Edinburgh, publication for the UK Marine Pollution Monitoring and Management Group

  7. D'Arcy BJ, Ridgeway IM, Marsden MW and Sargent RJ (1996) Diffuse Pollution and Agriculture in the Forth Catchment. Proceedings of Diffuse Pollution and Agriculture Conference, 12–14 April 1995, Edinburgh. Scottish Agricultural College, SEPA, Edinburgh

  8. De Jonge VN, 1997. High remaining productivity in the Dutch western Wadden Sea despite decreasing nutrient inputs from riverine sources. Mar Poll Bull 34: 427–436

  9. De Jonge VN and Engelkes MM (1993) The role of mineral compounds and chemical conditions in the binding of phosphate in the Ems estuary. Neth J Aquat Ecol 27: 227–236

  10. De Jonge VN, Engelkes MM and Bakker JF (1993) Bioavailability of phosphorous compounds in sediments of the western Dutch Wadden Sea. Hydrobiologia 253: 151–163

  11. De Jonge VN, Boynton W, D'Elia CF, Elmgren R and Welsh BL (1995) Comparison of effects of eutrophication on North Atlantic estuarine systems. In: Dyer KR and D'Elia CF (eds), Changes in fluxes in estuaries. Olsen & Olsen, Fredensborg, pp. 179–196

  12. Ducrotoy J-P and Elliott M (1997) Interrelations between science and policy-making: the North Sea example. Mar Pollut Bull 34: 686–701

  13. Elliott M (1993) The quality of macrobiological data. Mar Pollut Bull 26(1): 2–3

  14. Elliott M (1996) The derivation and value of ecological quality standards and objectives. Mar Pollut Bull 32: 762–763

  15. Elliott M and Lawrence AJ (1998) The protection of species versus habitats — dilemmas for marine scientists. Mar Pollut Bull 36(3): 174–176

  16. Fernandes TF, Elliott M and Da Silva MC (1995) The management of European estuaries: a comparison of the features, controls and management framework of the Tagus (Portugal) and Humber (England). Neth J Aquat Ecol 29(3–4): 459–468

  17. Gonçalves H (1997) Natura 2000: A rede da discórdia. EcoAmbiente, Ano 1(8): 19

  18. Gray JS (1995) Environment assessment, feedback monitoring — the Scandinavian experience. In: Earll RC (ed.), Marine environmental management, review of events in 1994 and future trends. paper 13, Kempley Gloucs, UK, pp. 67–72

  19. LNEC (1994) Protecção das Águas Doces, Costeiras e Estuarinas contra a Poluição Causada por Nitratos. Relatório 42/94 — NHS. Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Departamento de Hidráulica. Estudo elaborado para a Direcção-Geral do Ambiente, Portugal

  20. Morrissey DJ (1993) Environmental Impact Assessment — a review of its aims and recent developments. Mar Pollut Bull 26(10): 540–545

  21. NATURA 2000 (1997) Nature Newsletter of European Commission DGXI, p8, issue 4, October 1997, ISSN 1026–6151, European Commission, Brussels

  22. Raffaelli DG, Raven J and Poole L (1998) Ecological impact of green macroalgal blooms. Ann Rev Mar Biol Oceanogr 36: 97–125

  23. Scott CJ, Hemingway KL, Elliott M, De Jonge VN, Pethick JS, Malcolm S and Wilkinson M (1997) Impact of nutrients in estuaries — phase 2. Final draft report, December 1997, to Environment Agency and English Nature (Project. I639). Cambridge Coastal Research Unit, University of Cambridge, UK

  24. Stebbing ARD, Dethlefsen V and Carr M (eds) (1992) Biological effects of contaminants in the North Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 91(1–3): 1–361

  25. Ten Brink BJE, Hosper SH and Colijn F (1991) A quantitative method for description and assessment of ecosystems: the AMOEBA approach. Mar Pollut Bull 23: 265–270

  26. Topping G (ed.) (1997) QUASIMEME: Quality Measurements for marine monitoring. Mar Pollut Bull (1–6): 1–201

  27. Torless J (ed.) (1997) Newsletter for the UK Marine SACs Project. Summer edition. English Nature, Peterborough, UK

  28. Tucker G, Elliott M, Hill D and Kohler M (1997) Generic guidelines for favourable conditions of features of conservation interest under the EC Habitats Directive and Wild Birds Directive (contract No. F71–12–408): 3rd stage report, part B: aquatic Habitats and Species. Unpublished report by Ecoscope Applied Ecologists to Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough UK, pp. 77

  29. Van Beusekom JEE and De Jonge VN (1994) The role of suspended matter in the distribution of dissolved inorganic phosphate, iron and aluminium in the Ems estuary. Neth J Aquat Ecol 28(3–4): 383–395

  30. Van Beusekom JEE and De Jonge VN (1998) Retention of phosphorous and nitrogen in the Ems estuary. Estuaries 21(4A): 527–539

  31. Wells DE and Balls HR (eds) (1994) QUASIMEME: quality measurements for marine monitoring. Mar Pollut Bull 29(4–5): 143–249

  32. Wolff WJ (ed.) (1983) The ecology of the Wadden Sea. AA Balkema, Rotterdam, 3 volumes

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Elliott, M., Fernandes, T. & De Jonge, V. The impact of European Directives on estuarine and coastal science and management. Aquatic Ecology 33, 311–321 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009960706750

Download citation

  • coasts
  • conservation
  • environmental law
  • estuaries
  • EU directives
  • habitats
  • management
  • pollution
  • UK
  • Portugal
  • The Netherlands