Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 11–36 | Cite as

Factors influencing the release of plant nutrient elements from silicate rock powders: a geochemical overview

Article

Abstract

Rock-forming minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks contain most of the nutrients required by higher plants for growth and development. Ground rock fertilisers may provide a source of nutrients to depleted topsoils where bulk soil solutions are not in equilibrium with fresh primary minerals. Slow dissolution rates of silicate minerals may inhibit the use of rock powders in agriculture unless suitable soils are identified and optimum rock powder properties developed. This review identifies previous research where the agronomic effectiveness of ground rock fertilisers has been evaluated. There are many contradictory findings that need to be evaluated by reference to basic geochemical knowledge. Geochemical studies of mineral dissolution indicate the general reaction pathways by which nutrients are released, assuming that equilibrium between the soil solution and primary mineral is achieved. In soils, mineral dissolution is enhanced by disequilibrium between soil solution and mineral surfaces through the removal of ions by processes such as leaching and nutrient uptake. Rhizosphere processes and other biological activity may further enhance mineral dissolution through the release of H-ions and complexing organic compounds which react with mineral surfaces. Geochemical principles can be used to predict some of the reactions that occur when ground silicate minerals are added to soils as mineral fertilisers. A range of weathering rates for minerals have been identified in the laboratory and the field and are dependent on physical, mineralogical and biogeochemical factors. The rate limiting steps may be those that involve reactions between the soil solution and mineral surface. Dissolution primarily occurs at defects at the mineral surfaces and an understanding of these surface reactions may lead to preparative procedures to enhance nutrient release from the mineral surface. Normalising the release rates of nutrients to a unit surface area basis can aid in predicting nutrient release during dissolution from various ground rock materials. Identifying the relationships between release rates of minerals and plant uptake is vital to developing an understanding the effectiveness of rock dust applied to vegetated soils.

mineral dissolution powdered rock fertiliser rhizosphere weathering rate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen BL & Hajek BF (1989) Mineral occurrence in soil environments. In: Dixon JB & Weed SB (eds) Soils in Mineral Environments, pp 199-278, 2nd edn. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisc.Google Scholar
  2. Anand RR & Gilkes RJ (1984) Weathering of hornblende, plagioclase and chlorite in meta-dolerite, Australia. Geoderma 34: 261–280Google Scholar
  3. Antweiler RC & Drever JI (1983) The weathering of a late Tertiary volcanic ash: importance of organic solutes. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 47: 623–629Google Scholar
  4. Arocena JM, Pawlenk S, Dudas MJ (1994) Mineral transformation in some sandy soils from Alberta, Canada. Geoderma 61: 17–38Google Scholar
  5. Arshad MA, St. Arnaud RJ & Huang PM (1972) Dissolution of trioctahedral layer silicates by ammonium oxalate, sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and potassium pyrophosphate. Can J Soil Sci 52: 19–26Google Scholar
  6. Arthur MA & Fahey TJ (1993) Controls on soil solution chemistry in a subalpine forest in north central Colorado. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57: 1122–1130Google Scholar
  7. Asher CJ (1978) Natural and synthetic culture media for spermatophytes. CRC Handb Ser Nutr Food, Sect G3: 575–609Google Scholar
  8. Baerug R (1991a) Rock powder as a source of nutrients to different crops. The effect of potassium in rock powder. Norsk landbruksforsking 5: 175–181Google Scholar
  9. Baerug R (1991b) Rock powder as a source of nutrients to different crops. The magnesium effect of rock powder. Norsk landbruksforsking 5: 183–188Google Scholar
  10. Banfield JF & Eggleton RA (1990) Analytical transmission electron microscope studies of plagioclase, muscovite, and K-feldspar weathering. Clays Clay Min 38: 77–89Google Scholar
  11. Banfield JF & Hamers RF (1997) Processes at mineral surfaces with relevance tomicroorganisms and prebiotic synthesis. In: Banfield JF & Nealson KH (eds) Geomicrobiology: Interactions Between Microbes and Minerals, Rev Min 35: 81–122. Mineralogical Society of America, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  12. Barak P, Chen Y & Singer A (1983) Ground basalt and tuff as iron fertilizer for calcareous soils. Plant Soil 73: 155–158Google Scholar
  13. Barker WW, Welch SA & Banfield JF (1997) Biogeochemical weathering of silicate minerals. In: Banfield JF & Nealson KH (eds) Geomicrobiology: Interactions Between Microbes and Minerals, Rev Min 35: 391–428. Mineralogical Society of America, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  14. Benedetti MF, Menard O, Noack Y, Carvalho A & Nahon D (1994) Water-rock interactions in tropical catchments: field rates of weathering and biomass impact. Chem Geol 118: 203–220Google Scholar
  15. Berner EK & Berner RA (1987) The Global Water Cycle. Prentice-Hall: Englwood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  16. Berner RA (1978) Rate control of mineral dissolution under earth surface conditions. Amer J Sci 278: 1235–1252Google Scholar
  17. Berner RA (1995) Chemical weathering and its effect on atmospheric CO2 and climate. In: White AF & Brantley SL (eds) Chemical Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals, Rev Min 31: 565–583. Mineralogical Society of America, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  18. Berner RA & Holdren GR Jr. (1977) Mechanisms of feldspar weathering: I Some observational evidence. Geology 5: 369–372Google Scholar
  19. Berner RA & Holdren GR Jr (1979) Mechanism of feldspar weathering: II, Observations of feldspars from soils. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 43: 1173–1186Google Scholar
  20. Berner RA & Schott J (1982) Mechanism of pyroxene and amphibole weathering II. Observations of soil grains. Am J Sci 282: 1214–1231Google Scholar
  21. Berner RA, Sjoberg EL, Velbel MA & Kroh MD (1980) Dissolution of pyroxenes and amphiboles during weathering. Science 207: 1205–1206Google Scholar
  22. Berthelin J & Belgy G (1979) Microbial degradation of phyllosilicates during simulated podzolization. Geoderma 21: 297–310Google Scholar
  23. Blum AE & Stillings LL (1995) Feldspar dissolution kinetics. In: White AF & Brantley SL (eds) Chemical Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals, Rev Min 31: 291-351. Mineralogical Society of America, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  24. Blum WEH, Herbinger B, Mentler A, Ottner F, Pollack M, Unger E & Wenzel WW(1989a) The use of rock powders in agriculture. I.Chemical and mineralogical composition and suitability of rock powders for fertilization. Z Pflanzenernaehr Bodenk 152: 421–425Google Scholar
  25. Blum WEH, Herbinger B, Mentler A, Ottner F, Pollack M, Unger E and Wenzel WW (1989b) The use of rock powders in agriculture. II. Efficiency of rock powders for soil amelioration. Z Pflanzenernaehr Bodenk 152: 427–430Google Scholar
  26. Bockman OC, Kaarstad O, Lie OH & Richards I (1990) Agriculture and Fertilizers. Fertilizers in Perspective. Norsk Hydro a.s. Publishers, Oslo, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  27. Bolland MDA, Weatherley AJ, Gilkes RJ & Bowden JW (1986) Granular reactive apatite rock phosphate is not an effective phosphorus fertilizer in the short term on lateritic soils in southwestern Australia. Aust J Exp Agric 26: 217–225Google Scholar
  28. Boyle JR, Voigt GK & Sawhney BL (1967) Biotite flakes: alteration by chemical and biological treatment. Science 155: 193–195Google Scholar
  29. Boyle JR & Voigt GK (1973) Biological weathering of silicate minerals: implications for tree nutrition and soil genesis. Plant Soil 38: 191–201Google Scholar
  30. Brantley SL & Chen Y (1995) Chemical weathering rates of pyroxenes and amphiboles. In: White AF & Brantley SL (eds) Chemical Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals, Rev Min 31: 119–172. Mineralogical Society of America, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  31. Campbell DJ, Kinniburgh DG & Beckett PHT (1989) The soil solution chemistry of some Oxfordshire soils: temporal and spatial variability. J Soil Sci 40: 321–339Google Scholar
  32. Casey WH & Bunker B (1990) Leaching of mineral and glass surfaces during dissolution. In: Hochella MF Jr. & White AF (eds) Mineral-Water Interface Geochemistry, Rev Min 23: 397–426. Mineralogical Society of America, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  33. Casey WH & Ludwig C (1995) Silicate mineral dissolution as a ligand-exchange reaction. In: White AF & Brantley SL (eds) Chemical Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals, Rev Min 31: 87–117. Mineralogical Society of America, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  34. Chesworth W, van Straaten P & Semoka JMR (1989) Agrogeology in East Africa: the Tanzania-Canada project. J African Earth Sci 9: 357–362Google Scholar
  35. Clarkson DT & Hanson JB (1980) The mineral nutrition of higher plants. Ann Rev Plant Phys 31: 239–298Google Scholar
  36. Classen N & Jungk A (1982) Potassium dynamics at the soil-root interface in relation to the uptake of potassium by maize plants. Z Pflanzenernaehr Bodenk 145: 513–525Google Scholar
  37. Cleaves ET, Godfrey AE & Bricker OP (1970) Geochemical balance of a small watershed and its geomorphic implications. Geol Soc Am Bull 81: 3015–3032Google Scholar
  38. Colman SM & Dethier DP (1986) An overview of rates of chemical weathering. In: Colman SM & Dethier DP (eds) Rates of Chemical Weathering of Rocks and Minerals, pp 1–18. Academic Press, Orlando, FlGoogle Scholar
  39. Coroneos C, Hinsinger P & Gilkes RJ (1996) Granite powder as a source of potassium for plants: a glasshouse bioassay comparing two pasture species. Fert Res 45: 143–152Google Scholar
  40. Cronan C, Driscoll C, Newton RM, Kelly M, Schofield CL, Bartlett RJ & April R (1990) A comparative analysis of aluminum biogeochemistry in a Northeastern and Southeastern watershed. Water Resources Res 26: 1413–1430Google Scholar
  41. Dahlgren RA & Ugolini FC (1989) Aluminum fractionation of soil solutions from unperturbed and tephra-treated spodsols, Cascade Range, Washington, USA. Soil Sci Soc Am J 53: 559–566Google Scholar
  42. Darrah PR (1993) The rhizosphere and plant nutrition: a quantitative approach. Plant Soil 155/156: 1–20Google Scholar
  43. Deer WA, Howie RA & Zussman MA. (1963a) Rock Forming Minerals: Volume 1, Ortho-and Ring Silicates, Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  44. Deer WA, Howie RA & Zussman MA (1963b) Rock Forming Minerals: Volume 2 Chain Silicates, Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  45. Deer WA, Howie RA & Zussman MA (1963c) Rock Forming Minerals: Volume 3 Sheet Silicates, Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  46. Deer WA, Howie RA & Zussman MA (1963d) Rock Forming Minerals: Volume 4 Framework Silicates, Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  47. Doner HE & Lyn WC (1989) Carbonate, halide, sulfate and sulfide minerals. In: Dixon JB & Weed SB (eds) Soils in Mineral Environments, pp 279–330, 2nd edn. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WiscGoogle Scholar
  48. Drever JI (1994) The effect of land plants on weathering rates of silicate minerals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58: 2325–2332Google Scholar
  49. Drever JI & Zobrist J (1992) Chemical weathering of silicate rocks as a function of elevation in the southern Swiss Alps. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 56: 3209–3216Google Scholar
  50. Edmeades DC, Wheeler DM & Clinton OE (1985) The chemical composition of ionic strength of soil solutions from New Zealand topsoils. Aust J Soil Res 23: 151–165Google Scholar
  51. Eggleton RA (1986) The relation between crystal structure and silicate weathering rates. In: Colman SM & Dethier DP (eds) Rates of ChemicalWeathering of Rocks and Minerals, pp 21–40.Academic Press, Orlando, FlGoogle Scholar
  52. Fanning DS, Keramidas VZ & El-Deskoy MA (1989) Micas. In: Dixon JB & Weed SB (eds) Soils in Mineral Environments, pp 551–634, 2nd edn. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WiscGoogle Scholar
  53. Fry N (1984) The Field Description of Metamorphic Rocks. Geological Society of London Handbook Series. Open University Press, Milton Keynes, UKGoogle Scholar
  54. Fung PC & Sanipelli GG (1982) Surface studies of feldspar dissolution using surface replication combined with electron microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 46: 503–512Google Scholar
  55. Gilkes RJ, Anand RR & Suddhiprakan A (1986) How the microfabric of soils may be influenced by the structure and chemical composition of parent materials. Proc XIII ISSS Congress, Hamburg: 1093–1106Google Scholar
  56. Gilkes RJ, Young RC & Quirk JP (1972) The oxidation of octahedral iron in biotite. Clays Clay Min 20: 303–315Google Scholar
  57. Gilkes RJ, Young RC & Quirk JP (1973a) Artificial weathering of oxidized biotite: I, Potassium removal by sodium chloride and sodium tetraphenylboron solutions. Soil Sci Am Proc 37: 25–28Google Scholar
  58. Gilkes RJ, Young RC & Quirk JP (1973b) Artificial weathering of oxidized biotite: II Rates of dissolution in 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 M HCl. Soil Sci Am Proc 37: 29–33Google Scholar
  59. Gillman GP (1980) The effect of crushed basalt scoria on the cation exchange properties of a highly weathered soil. Soil Sci Am J 44: 465–468Google Scholar
  60. Goldich SS (1938) A study in rock weathering. J Geol 46: 17–58Google Scholar
  61. Grandstaff DE (1986) The dissolution rate of forsterite olivine from Hawaiian beach sand. In: Colman SM & Dethier DP (eds) Rates of Chemical Weathering of Rocks and Minerals, pp 41–59. Academic Press, Orlando, FlGoogle Scholar
  62. Griffiths RP, Baham JE & Caldwell BA (1994) Soil solution chemistry of ectomycorrhizal mats in forest soil. Soil Biol Biochem 26: 331–337Google Scholar
  63. Grinsted MJ, Hedley MJ, White RE & Nye PH (1982) Plant induced changes in the rhizosphere of rape (Brassica napus var. Emerald) seedling: I. pH change and the increase in P concentrations in the soil solution. New Phytol 91: 19–29Google Scholar
  64. Hatton A, Ranger J, Robert M, Nys C & Bonnanaud P (1987) Weathering of a mica introduced into four acidic forest soils. J Soil Sci 38: 179–190Google Scholar
  65. Haynes RJ (1990) Active ion uptake and maintenance of cationanion balance: A critical examination of their role in regulating rhizosphere pH. Plant Soil 126: 247–264Google Scholar
  66. Hering JG & Stumm W (1990) Oxidative and reductive dissolution of minerals. In: Hochella MF and White AF (eds) Mineral Water Interface Geochemistry, Rev Min 23, pp 427–465. Mineralogical Society of America, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  67. Hinsinger P (1998) How do plants acquire mineral nutrients? Chemical processes involved in the rhizosphere. Adv Agron 64: 225–265Google Scholar
  68. Hinsinger P, Bolland MDA & Gilkes RJ (1996) Silicate rock powder: effect on selected chemical properties of a range of soils from Western Australia and on plant growth as assessed in a glasshouse experiment. Fert Res 45: 69–79Google Scholar
  69. Hinsinger P, Elsass F, Jaillard B and Robert M (1993) Rootinduced irreversible transformation of a trioctahedral mica in the rhizosphere of rape. J Soil Sci 44: 535–545Google Scholar
  70. Hinsinger P & Gilkes RJ (1995) Root induced dissolution of phosphate rock in the rhizosphere of lupins grown in alkaline soil. Aust J Soil Res 33: 477–489Google Scholar
  71. Hinsinger P & Jaillard B (1993) Root-induced release of interlayer potassium and vermiculitization of phlogopite as related to potassium depletion in the rhizosphere of ryegrass. J Soil Sci 44: 525–534Google Scholar
  72. Hochella MF & Banfield JF (1995) Chemical weathering of silicates in nature: a microscopic perspective with theoretical considerations. In: White AF & Brantley SL (eds) Chemical Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals, Rev Min 31, pp 353–406. Mineralogical Society of America, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  73. Holdren GR & Berner RA (1979) Mechanism of feldspar weathering. I, Experimental studies Geochim Cosmochim Acta 43: 1161–1171Google Scholar
  74. Holdren GR & Speyer PM (1985a) pH dependent changes in the rates and stoichiometry of dissolution of an alkali feldspar at room temperature. Am J Sci 285: 994–1026Google Scholar
  75. Holdren GR & Speyer PM (1985b) Reaction rate-surface area relationships during the early stages of weathering: I. Initial observations. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 49: 675–681Google Scholar
  76. Huang PM(1989) Feldspars, Olivines, Pyroxenes, and Amphiboles. In: Dixon JB & Weed SB (eds) Soils in Mineral Environments, pp 635–674, 2nd edn. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WiscGoogle Scholar
  77. Huang WH & Keller WD (1970) Dissolution of rock-forming silicate minerals in organic acids: simulated first-stage weathering of fresh mineral surfaces. Am Min 55: 2076–2094Google Scholar
  78. Huang WH & Kiang W (1972) Laboratory dissolution of plagioclase feldspaths in water and organic acids at room temperature. Am Min 57: 1849–1859Google Scholar
  79. Huang WT (1962) Petrology. McGraw-Hill, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  80. Hughes S, Norris DA, Stevens PA, Reynolds B, Williams TG & Wood C (1994) Effects of forest age on surface drainage and soil solution aluminium chemistry in stagnopodzols in Wales. Water Air Soil Pollut 77: 115–139Google Scholar
  81. Jongmans AG, van Breeman N, Lundström U, van Hees PAW, Finlay RD, Srinivasan M, Unestam T, Giesler R, Melkerud PA & Olsson M (1997) Rock-eating fungi. Nature 389: 682–683Google Scholar
  82. Kabata-Pendias A & Pendias H (1992) Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FlGoogle Scholar
  83. Klein C & Hurlbut Jr CS (1993) Manual of Mineralogy, 21st edn. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Kodama H, Nelson S, Fook Yang A & Kohyama N (1994) Mineralogy of rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils in corn fields. Clays Clay Min 43: 755–763Google Scholar
  85. Kodama H & Schnitzer M (1973) Dissolution of chlorite minerals by fulvic acid. Can J Soil Sci 53: 240–243Google Scholar
  86. Lasaga AC, Soler JM, Ganor J, Burch TE & Nagy KC (1994) Chemical weathering rate laws and global geochemical cycles. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58: 2361–2386Google Scholar
  87. Lee MR, Hodson ME & Parsons I (1998) The role of intraganular microtextures and microstructures in chemical and mechanical weathering: direct comparisons of experimentally and naturally weathered feldspars. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 62: 2772–2778Google Scholar
  88. Le Maitre RW (1989) A Classification of Igneous Rocks and Glossary of Terms. Recommendations of the International Union of Geological Sciences Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks. Blackwell Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  89. Leonard RA & Weed SB (1970) Mica weathering rates as related to mica type and composition. Clays Clay Min 18: 187–195Google Scholar
  90. Leonardos OH, Fyfe WS & Kronberg BI (1987) The use of ground rocks in laterite systems: an improvement to the use of conventional soluble fertilizers? Chem Geol 60: 361–370Google Scholar
  91. Leyval C & Berthelin J (1989) Interactions betwenn Laccaria laccata, Agrobacterium radiobacter and beech roots: Influence on P, K, Mg and Fe mobilization from minerals and plant growth. Plant Soil 117: 103–110Google Scholar
  92. Lindsay WL (1979) Chemical Equilibria in Soils. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  93. Lindsay WL & Walthall PM (1989) The solubility of aluminum in soils. In: Sposito G (ed) The Environmental Chemistry of Aluminum, pp 221–239. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FlGoogle Scholar
  94. Luce RW, Barlet W & Parks GA (1972) Dissolution kinetics of magnesian silicates. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 36: 35–50Google Scholar
  95. Lundström V & Öhman LO (1990) Dissolution of feldspars in the presence of natural organic solutes. J Soil Sci 41: 359–369Google Scholar
  96. Lundström US, van Breemen N and Jongmans AG (1995) Evidence for microbial decomposition of organic acids during podzolization. Eur J Soil Sci 46: 489–496Google Scholar
  97. Marschner H (1995) Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, 2nd edn. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  98. Manley EP, Chesworth W & Evans LJ (1987) The solution of chemistry of podzolic soils from the eastern Canadian shield: a thermodynamic interpretation of the mineral phases controlling soluble Al3+ and H4SiO4. J Soil Sci 38: 39–51Google Scholar
  99. Mogk DW & Locke WW (1988) Application of Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) to naturally weathered hornblende. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 52: 2357–2542Google Scholar
  100. Muir IJ & Nesbitt HW (1991) Effects of aqueous cations on the dissolution of labradorite feldspar. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 55: 3181–3189Google Scholar
  101. Nagy KL (1995) Dissolution and precipitation kinetics of sheet silicates. In: White AF & Brantley SL (eds) Chemical Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals, Rev Min 31: 173–233. Mineralogical Society of America, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  102. Nahon DB (1991) Introduction to the Petrology of Soils and Chemical Weathering. John Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  103. Newman ACD (1969) Cation exchange properties of micas. I, The relation between mica composition and potassium exchange in solutions of different pH. J Soil Sci 20: 357–373Google Scholar
  104. Niwas JM, Dissanayake CB & Keerthishinghe G (1987) Rocks as fertilizers: Preliminary studies on potassium availability of some common rocks in Sri Lanka. App Geochem 2: 243–246Google Scholar
  105. Paces T (1983) Rate constants of dissolution derived from the measurements of mass balance in hydrological catchments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 47: 1855–1863Google Scholar
  106. Paul EA & Clark FE (1989) Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry. Academic Press, San Diego, CalifGoogle Scholar
  107. Petit JC, Mea GD, Dran JC, Schott J & Berner RA (1987) Mechanism of diopside dissolution from hydrogen depth profiling. Nature 325: 705–707Google Scholar
  108. Petrovic R, Berner RA & Goldhaber MB (1976) Rate control in dissolution of alkali feldspars – I. Study of residual feldspar grains by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 40: 537–548Google Scholar
  109. Ranger J, Drambine E, Robert M, Righi D & Felix C (1991) Study of current soil forming processes using bags of vermiculite and resins placed within soil horizons. Geoderma 48: 335–350Google Scholar
  110. Raulund-Rasmussen K, Borggaard OK, Hansen HCB & Olsonn M (1998) Effect of natural organic soil solutes on weathering rates of soil minerals. Eur J Soil Sci 49: 397–406Google Scholar
  111. Robert M and Berthelin J (1986) Role of biological and biochemical factors in soil mineral weathering. In: Interactions of Soil Minerals with Natural Organics and Microbes, pp 453–495, SSSA Special Publication No 17Google Scholar
  112. Sanz Scovino JI & Rowell DL (1988) The use of feldspars as potassium fertilizers in the savannah of Columbia. Fert Res 17: 71–83Google Scholar
  113. Schnitzer M & Kodama H (1976) The dissolution of micas by fulvic acid. Geoderma 15: 381–391Google Scholar
  114. Schott J, Berner RA & Sjoberg EL (1981): Mechanism of pyroxene and amphibole weathering – I. Experimental studies of iron-free minerals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 45: 2123–2135Google Scholar
  115. Singh B & Gilkes RJ (1991) Weathering of a chromium muscovite to kaolinite. Clays Clay Min 39: 571–579Google Scholar
  116. Singh B & Gilkes RJ (1993) Weathering of spodumene to smectite in a lateritic environment. Clays Clay Min 41: 624–630Google Scholar
  117. Soulsby C & Reynolds B (1992) Modeling hydrological processes and aluminum leaching in an acid soil at Lyn Brianne, Mid-Wales. J Hydrology 138: 409–429Google Scholar
  118. Stillings LL & Brantley SL (1995) Feldspar dissolution at 25 º C and pH 3: Reaction stoichiometry and the effect of cations. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59: 1483–1496Google Scholar
  119. Stumm W & Morgan JJ (1981) Aquatic Chemistry, An Introduction Emphasizing Chemical Equilibria in Natural Watersheds. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  120. Sverdrup H (1990) The Kinetics of Base Cation Release Due To Chemical Weathering. Lund University Press: Lund, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  121. Sverdrup H & Warfvinge P (1988) Weathering of primary silicate minerals in the natural soil environment in relation to a chemical weathering model. Water Air Soil Pollut 38: 387–408Google Scholar
  122. Sverdrup H & Warfvinge P (1995) Estimating field weathering rates using laboratory kinetics. In: White AF & Brantley SL (eds) Chemical Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals, Rev Min 31: 485–541. Mineralogical Society of America, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  123. Taylor AB & Velbel MA (1991) Geochemical mass balances and weathering rates in forested watersheds of the southern Blue Ridge II. Effects of botanical uptake terms. Geoderma 51: 29–50Google Scholar
  124. Thorpe R & Brown G (1985) The Field Description of Igeous Rocks. Geological Society of London Handbook Series. Open University Press, Milton Keynes, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  125. Ugolini FC, Corti G, Agnelli A & Piccardi F (1996) Mineralogical, physical and chemical properties of rock fragments in soil. Soil Sci 161: 521–542Google Scholar
  126. Velbel MA (1986) The mathematical basis for determining rates of geochemical and geomorphic processes in small forested watersheds by mass balance: examples and implications. In: Colman SM & Dethier DP (eds) Rates of Chemical Weathering of Rocks and Minerals, pp 439–451. Academic Press, Orlando FlGoogle Scholar
  127. Velbel MA (1989) Effect of chemical affinity on feldspar hydrolysis rates in two natural weathering systems. Chem Geol 78: 245–253Google Scholar
  128. Velbel MA, Taylor AB & Romero NL (1990) Effect of temperature on feldspar weathering rates in alpine and non-alpine watersheds. Geol Soc Amer Abstr Prog 22(6): 49.Google Scholar
  129. Velde B (1992) Introduction to Clay Minerals. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  130. Von Fragstein P, Pertl W & Vogtmann H (1988) Artificial weathering of silicate rock powders. Z Pflanzenernaehr Bodenk 151, 141–146Google Scholar
  131. Von Mersi W, Kuhnert-Finkeernagel R & Schinner F (1992) The influence of rock powders on microbial activity of three forest soils. Z Pflanzenernaehr Bodenk 155: 29–33Google Scholar
  132. Wedepohl KH (ed) (1978) Handbook of Geochemistry. Springer-Verlag: BerlinGoogle Scholar
  133. Weerasuriya TJ, Pushpakumara S & Cooray PI (1993) Acidulated pegmatitic mica: A promising new multi-nutrient mineral fertilizer. Fert Res 34: 67–77Google Scholar
  134. Welch RM (1995) Micronutrient Nutrition In Plants. Crit Rev Plant Sci 14: 49–82Google Scholar
  135. Welch SA & Ullman WJ (1993) The effect of organic acids on plagioclase dissolution rates and stoichiometry. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57: 2725–2736Google Scholar
  136. Welch SA & Ullman WJ (1996) Feldspar dissolution in acidic and organic solutions: Compositional and pH dependence of rate. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60: 2939–2948Google Scholar
  137. White AF (1995) Chemical weathering rates of silicate minerals in soils. In: White AF & Brantley SL (eds) Chemical Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals, Rev Min 31, pp 407–461. Mineralogical Society of America, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  138. White AF & Blum AE (1995) Effects of climate on chemical weathering in watersheds. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59: 1729–1748Google Scholar
  139. White AF, Blum AE, Schulz MS, Bullen TD, Harden JW & Petersen ML (1996) Chemical weathering rates of a soil chronosequence on granitic alluvium: I, Quantification of mineralogical and surface area changes and calculations of primary silicate reaction rates. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60: 2533–2550Google Scholar
  140. Wilding LP, Smeck NE & Drees LR (1977) Silica in soils: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, and opal. In: Dixon JB & Weed SB (eds) Soils in Mineral Environments, pp 471–552, 1st edn. Soil Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WiscGoogle Scholar
  141. Wilson MJ (1975) Chemical weathering of some primary rockforming minerals. Soil Sci 119: 349–355Google Scholar
  142. Wollast R (1967) Kinetics of the alteration of K-feldspars in buffered solutions at low temperatures. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 31: 635–648Google Scholar
  143. Wollast R & Chou L (1985) Kinetics study of the dissolution of albite with a continuous flow-through fluidized bed reactor. In: Drever JI (ed) The Chemistry of Weathering, pp 75–96. Ridel: Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of Western AustraliaNedlands, Western AustraliaAustralia
  2. 2.Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of Western AustraliaNedlands, Western AustraliaAustralia

Personalised recommendations