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Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 209–240 | Cite as

Nonlinear Viscoelastic and Viscoplastic Constitutive Equations Based on Thermodynamics

  • R.A. Schapery
Article

Abstract

An approach to modeling the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced and unreinforced plastics with an evolving internal state is described. Intrinsic nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of the resin matrix is taken into account along with growth of damage. The thermodynamic framework of the method is discussed first. The Gibbs free energy is expressed in terms of stresses, internal state variables (ISVs), temperatureand moisture content. Simplifications are introduced based on physical models for evolution of the ISVs and on experimental observations of thedependence of strain state on stress state and its history. These simplifications include use of master creep functions that account for multiaxial stresses, environmental factors and aging in a reduced time and other scalars. An explicit representation of the strains follows, which isthen specialized to provide three-dimensional homogenized constitutiveequations for transversely isotropic, fiber composites. Experimentalsupport for these equations is briefly reviewed. Finally, physicalinterpretation of some of the constitutive functions is discussed usingresults from a microcracking model as well as molecular rate process andfree volume theories. It is shown that the present thermodynamicformulation leads to a generalized rate process theory that accounts for abroad distribution of thermally activated transformations in polymers.

nonlinear viscoelasticity viscoplasticity constitutive equations thermodynamics free volume durability 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • R.A. Schapery
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering MechanicsThe University of TexasAustinU.S.A

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