Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 52, Issue 2–3, pp 225–248 | Cite as

Closing the global N2O budget: nitrous oxide emissions through the agricultural nitrogen cycle

  • Arvin Mosier
  • Carolien Kroeze
  • Cindy Nevison
  • Oene Oenema
  • Sybil Seitzinger
  • Oswald van Cleemput


In 1995 a working group was assembled at the request of OECD/IPCC/IEA to revise the methodology for N2O from agriculture for the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Methodology. The basics of the methodology developed to calculate annual country level nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural soils is presented herein. Three sources of N2O are distinguished in the new methodology: (i) direct emissions from agricultural soils, (ii) emissions from animal production, and (iii) N2O emissions indirectly induced by agricultural activities. The methodology is a simple approach which requires only input data that are available from FAO databases. The methodology attempts to relate N2O emissions to the agricultural nitrogen (N) cycle and to systems into which N is transported once it leaves agricultural systems. These estimates are made with the realization that increased utilization of crop nutrients, including N, will be required to meet rapidly growing needs for food and fiber production in our immediate future. Anthropogenic N input into agricultural systems include N from synthetic fertilizer, animal wastes, increased biological N-fixation, cultivation of mineral and organic soils through enhanced organic matter mineralization, and mineralization of crop residue returned to the field. Nitrous oxide may be emitted directly to the atmosphere in agricultural fields, animal confinements or pastoral systems or be transported from agricultural systems into ground and surface waters through surface runoff. Nitrate leaching and runoff and food consumption by humans and introduction into sewage systems transport the N ultimately into surface water (rivers and oceans) where additional N2O is produced. Ammonia and oxides of N (NOx) are also emitted from agricultural systems and may be transported off-site and serve to fertilize other systems which leads to enhanced production of N2O. Eventually, all N that moves through the soil system will be either terminally sequestered in buried sediments or denitrified in aquatic systems. We estimated global N2O–N emissions for the year 1989, using midpoint emission factors from our methodology and the FAO data for 1989. Direct emissions from agricultural soils totaled 2.1 Tg N, direct emissions from animal production totaled 2.1 Tg N and indirect emissions resulting from agricultural N input into the atmosphere and aquatic systems totaled 2.1 Tg N2O–N for an annual total of 6.3 Tg N2O–N. The N2O input to the atmosphere from agricultural production as a whole has apparently been previously underestimated. These new estimates suggest that the missing N2O sources discussed in earlier IPCC reports is likely a biogenic (agricultural) one.

animal waste fertilizer greenhouse gas inventory nitrous oxide 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Benckiser G, Elts R, Linn A, Lorch HJ, Suemer E, Weiske A & Wenzhoefer F (1996) N2O emissions from different cropping systems and from aerated, nitrifying tanks of a municipal waste waters treatment plant. Biol Fertil Soils 23: 257-265Google Scholar
  2. Berounsky VM & Nixon SW (1993) Rates of nitrification along and estuarine gradient in Narrangasett Bay. Estuaries 16(4): 718-730Google Scholar
  3. Berounsky VM & Nixon SW (1985) Eutrophication and the rate of net nitrification in a coastal marine ecosystem. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 20: 773-781Google Scholar
  4. BKH (1994) Studie naar de vorming van N2O in rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallaties. Literatuuronderzoek en orienterende metingen. BKH Report RO181018/2350l/2 Delft, the NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  5. Bouwman AF (1996) Direct emission of nitrous oxide from agricultural soils. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 46: 53-70Google Scholar
  6. Bouwman AF (1995) Compilation of a global inventory of emissions of nitrous oxide. Thesis Landbouwuniversiteti Wageningen. 143 pGoogle Scholar
  7. Bouwman AF (1994) Method to estimate direct nitrous oxide emisions from agricultural soils. Report 773004004. National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, the Netherlands 28 pGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouwman AF, Olivier JGJ & Van der Hoek KW (1995) Uncertainties in the global sourced distribution of nitrous qoxide. J Geophys Res 100: 2785-2800Google Scholar
  9. Bouwman AF & Van der Hoek KW (1991) Analysis of soil and water borne emissions of nitrous oxide and methane in the Netherlands. RIVM Report no. 736301010. National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, the NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  10. Bouwman AF & Sombroek WG (1990) Inputs to climatic change by soils and agriculture related activities: Present status and possible future trends. In: Scharpenseel HW, Schomaker M & Ayoub A (eds) Soils on a Warmer Earth. Developments in Soil Science, Vol 20 p 15-30. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowden RD, Melillo JM & Steudler PA (1991) Effects of nitrogen additions on annual nitrous oxide fluxes from temperate forests soils in the northeastern United States. J Geophys Res 96: 9321-9328Google Scholar
  12. Bowden WB & Bormann FH (1986) Transport and loss of nitrous oxide in soil water afterforest clear-cutting. Science 233: 867-869Google Scholar
  13. Brumme R & Beese F (1992) Effects of liming and nitrogen fertilization on emission of CO2 and N2O from a temperate forest. J Geophys Res 97: 12851-12858Google Scholar
  14. Burton CH, Sneath RW & Farrent JW (1993) Emissions of nitrogen oxide gases during aerobic treatment of animal slurries. Bioresource Technology 45: 233-235Google Scholar
  15. Carran RA, Theobald PW & Evans JP (1995) Emission of nitrous oxide from some grazed pasture soils in New Zealand. Aust J Soil Res 33: 341-352Google Scholar
  16. Christensen PB & Soerensen J (1988) Denitrification in sediment of lowland streams: regional and seasonal variation in Gelbaek and Rabis Beak, Denmark, FEMS Microbiol Eco 153: 335-344Google Scholar
  17. Christensen PB, Nielsen LP, Revsbech NP & Sorensen J (1989) Microzonation of denitrification activity in stream sediments as studies with a combined oxygen and nitrous oxide microsensor. Appl Environ Microbiol 55: 1234-1241Google Scholar
  18. Cole V, Cerri C, Minami K, Mosier A, Rosenberg N & Sauerbeck D et al. (1996) Chapter 23. Agricultural Options for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. pp 745-771. In: Watson RT, Zinyowera MC & Moss RH (eds) Climate Change 1995. Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. Published for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  19. Cooper AB & Cooke JG (1984) Nitrate loss and transformation in 2 vegetated headwater streams. N Z J Mar Freshwater Res 18: 441-450Google Scholar
  20. Corrie MD, Van Kessel C & Pennock DJ (1996) Landscape and seasonal patterns of nitrous oxide emissions in a semiarid region. Soil Sci Soc Am J 60: 1806-1815Google Scholar
  21. Czepiel P, Crill P & Harriss R (1995) Nitrous oxide emissions from municipal wastewater treatment. Environ Sci Technol 29(9): 2352-2356Google Scholar
  22. Danso SKA (1995) Sustainable agriculture. The role of biological nitrogen fixing plants. In: IAEA (ed) Nuclear Techniques in Soil-Plant Studies for Sustainable Agriculture and Environmental Preservation pp 205-224. IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  23. Debruyn W, Lissens G, Van Rensbergen J & Wevers M (1994) Nitrous oxide emissions from waste water. In: Van Ham J et al. (eds) 1994: 159-165Google Scholar
  24. De Klein CAM & Van Logtestijn RSP (1994) Denitrification and N2O emission from urine-affected grassland soil. Plant and Soil 163: 235-242Google Scholar
  25. DeMore WB, Sander SP, Golden DM, Hampson RF, Kurylo MJ, Howard CJ, Ravishankara AR, Kolb CE & Molina MJ (1994) Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling. JPL-NASA, Evaluation No. 11Google Scholar
  26. Dentener FJ & Crutzen PJ (1994) A three-dimensional model of the global ammonia cycle. J Atmos Chem 19: 331-369Google Scholar
  27. Dowdell RJ, Burford JR & Crees R (1979) Losses of nitrous oxide dissolved in drainage water from agricultural land. Nature 278: 342-343Google Scholar
  28. Duff JH, Triska FJ & Oremland RS (1984) Denitrification associated with stream periphyton: Chamber estimates from undisrupted communities. J Environ Qual 13(4): 514-518Google Scholar
  29. Duxbury JM, Bouldin DR, Terry RE & Tate RL III (1982) Emissions of nitrous oxide from soils. Nature 298: 462-464Google Scholar
  30. Duxbury JM & Mosier AR (1993) Status and issues concerning agricultural emissions of greenhouse gases. In: Kaiser HM & Drennen TE (eds) Agricultural Dimensions of Global Climate Change, pp 229-258. St. Lucie Press. Delray Beach, FLGoogle Scholar
  31. ECETOC (1994) Ammonia emissions to air in Western Europe. Technical Report No 62. Brussels, 196 pGoogle Scholar
  32. Erich MS, Bererie A, & Duxbury JM (1984) Activities of denitrifying enzymes in freshly sampled soils. Soil Sci 38: 25-32Google Scholar
  33. Eswaran H, Van den Berg E & Reich P (1993) Organic carbon in soils of the world. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57: 192-194Google Scholar
  34. FAO (1990a) Fertilizer Yearbook. Volume 39. FAO statistics series No. 95. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  35. FAO (1990b) Fertilizer Yearbook. Volume 43. FAO statistics series No. 94. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  36. Firestone MK & Davidson EA (1989) Microbiological basis of NO and N2O production and consumption in soil. In: Andreae MO & Schimel DS (eds) Exchange of Trace Gases between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere, pp 7-21. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  37. Flessa H, Doersch P, Beese F, Koenig H & Bouwman AF (1996) In-fluence of cattle excrements on nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in pasture land J Environ Qual 25: 1366-1370Google Scholar
  38. Flessa H, Doersch P & Beese F (1995) Seasonal variation of N2O and CH4 fluxes in differently managed arable soils in southern Germany, J Geophy Res 100: 23,115-23, 124Google Scholar
  39. Galbally IE et al. (1992) Proceedings of IGBP Workshop No. 14. Canberra, Oct. 3-5, 1990Google Scholar
  40. Goreau TJ, Kaplan WA, Wofsy SC, McElroy MB, Valois FW & Watson SW (1980) Production of NO2-and N2O by nitrifying bacteria at reduced concentrations of oxygen. Appl Environ Microbiol 30: 526-532Google Scholar
  41. Groenestein CM, Oosthoek J & van Faassen HG (1993) Microbial processes in deep-litter systems for fattening pigs and emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide. In: Verstegen MWA et al. (eds) Nitrogen Flow in Pig Production and Environmental Consequences, p 307-312. Proc. First Int. Symp. on Nitrogen Flow in Pig Production and Environmental Consequences. Pudoc Scientific Publ., WageningenGoogle Scholar
  42. Groffman PM, Rice CW & Tiedje JM (1993) Denitrification in a tallgrass prairie landscape. Ecology 74: 855-862Google Scholar
  43. Guthrie TF & Duxbury JM (1978) Nitrogen mineralization and denitrification in organic soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42: 908-912Google Scholar
  44. Hanaki K, Hong Z & Matsuo T (1992) Production of nitrous oxide gas during denitrification of wastewater. Wat Sci Tech 26(5-6): 1027-1036Google Scholar
  45. Hanson GC, Groffman PM & Gold AJ (1994) Denitrification in riparian wetlands receiving high and low groundwater nitrate inputs. J Environ Qual 23: 917-922Google Scholar
  46. Haynes RJ & Williams PH (1993) Nutrient cycling and soil fertility in grazed pasture ecosystem. Advances in Agronomy 49: 119-199Google Scholar
  47. Helder W & De Vries RTP (1983) Estuarine nitrite maxima and nitrifying bacteria (ems-Dollard Estuary). Neth J Sea Res 17: 1-18Google Scholar
  48. Hemond HF & Duran AP (1989) Fluxes of N2O at the sedimentwater and water-atmosphere boundaries of a nitrogen-rich river. Water Res Res 25: 839-846Google Scholar
  49. Hill AR (1979) Denitrification in the nitrogen budget of a river ecosystem. Nature 281: 291-292Google Scholar
  50. Hill AR (1981) Nitrate-nitrogen flux and utilization in a stream ecosystem during los summer flows. Can Geogr 25(3): 225-239Google Scholar
  51. Hill AR (1983) Nitrate-nitrogen mass balances for two Ontario rivers. In: Fontaine TD & Bartell SM (eds) Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. Ann Arbor Science, MichiganGoogle Scholar
  52. Hong Z, Hanaki K & Matsuo T (1993) Greenhouse gas-N2O production during denitrification in wastewater treatment. Water Sci Technol 7: 203-207Google Scholar
  53. Horrigan SG & Springer AL (1990) Oceanic and estuarine ammonium oxidation: Effects of light. Limnol Oceanogr 4: 316-328Google Scholar
  54. IPCC (1990) Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment. IPCCWorking Group I Houghton JT, Jenkins GJ, & Ephraums JJ and WMO/UNEP (eds) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK 365 ppGoogle Scholar
  55. IPCC (1992) Houghton JT et al. (eds) Climate Change (1992) The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment. Published for the IPCC, Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  56. IPCC (1995a) (eds) Houghton JT et al. Climate Change (1994) Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and An Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios. Published for the IPCC, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK 337 ppGoogle Scholar
  57. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) (1995b) IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. OECD/OCDE, ParisGoogle Scholar
  58. IPCC (1997) (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. OECD/OCDE, ParisGoogle Scholar
  59. Jarvis SC & Pain BF (1994) Greenhouse gas emissions from intensive livestock systems: their estimation and technologies for reduction. Climate Change 27: 27-38Google Scholar
  60. Jenkins MC & Kemp WM (1984) The coupling of nitrification and denitrification in two estiarine sediments. Limnol Oceanogr 29: 609-619Google Scholar
  61. Jensen H B, Jorgensen K S & Soerensen J (1984) Diurnal variation of nitrogen cycling in coastal marine sediments II. Nitrous oxide emissions. Mar Biol 83: 177-183Google Scholar
  62. Jensen MH, Andersen TK & Soerensen J (1988) Denitrification in coastal bay sediment: regional and seasonal variation in Aarhus Bight, Denmark. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 48: 155-162Google Scholar
  63. Jorgensen KS, Jensen HB & Sorensen J (1984) Nitrous oxide production from nitrification and denitrification in marine sediments at low oxygen concentrations. Can J Microbiol 30: 1073-1078Google Scholar
  64. Kaspar HF & Tiedje JM (1981) Dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite in the bovine rumen: nitrous oxide production and effect of acetylene. Appl Environ Microbiol 41: 705-709Google Scholar
  65. Kaushik NK & Robinson JB (1976) Preliminary observations on nitrogen transport during summer in a small spring-fed Ontario stream. Hydrobiol 49(1): 59-63Google Scholar
  66. Kemp WM, Sampou P, Caffrey J & Mayer M (1990) Ammonium recycling versus denitrification in Chesapeake Bay sediments. Limnol Oceanogr 35: 1545-1563Google Scholar
  67. Koops JG, Oenema O & van Beusichem ML (1996) Denitrification in the top and subsoil of grassland on peat soils. Plant and Soil 184: 1-11Google Scholar
  68. Koops JG, Oenema O & van Beusichem ML (1997) Nitrogen loss from grassland on peat soils through nitrous oxide production. Plant and Soil 188: 119-130Google Scholar
  69. Kroeze C & Seitzinger SP (1998) Nitrogen inputs to rivers, estuaries and continental shelves and related nitrous oxide emissions in 1990 and 2050: A global model. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 52: 195-212Google Scholar
  70. Kroeze C (1994) Nitrous Oxide; Emission inventory and options for control in the Netherlands. Report Number 773001004. National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, the Netherlands. 163 pGoogle Scholar
  71. Kumarasinghe KS & Eskew DL (1991) Applications of N-15 isotope techniques in Azolla-rice studies. In: IAEA (ed) Stable Isotopes in Plant Nutrition, Soil Fertility and Environmental Studies, pp 169-178. IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  72. Li C, Frolking S & Frolking TA (1992) A model of nitrous oxide evolution from soil driven by rainfall events: 1. Model structure and sensitivity. J Geophys Res 97: 9759-9766Google Scholar
  73. Lipschultz F, Wofsy SC & Fox LE (1986) Nitrogen metabolism of the eutropic Delaware River ecosystem. Limnol Oceanogr 29: 84-98Google Scholar
  74. Martikainen PJ, Nykanen H, Crill P & Silvola J (1996) Effect of a lowered water table on nitrous oxide fluxes from northern peatlands. Nature 366: 51-53Google Scholar
  75. Minami K & Fukushi S (1984) Methods for measuring N2O flux from water surface and N2O dissolved in water from agricultural land. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 30: 495-502Google Scholar
  76. Minami K & Ohsawa A (1990) Emission of nitrous oxide dissolved in drainage water from agricultural land. In: Bouwman AF (ed) Soils and the Greenhouse Effect, pp 503-509. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  77. Monaghan RM & Barraclough B (1993) Nitrous oxide and dinitrogen emissions from urine-affected soil under controlled conditions. Plant and Soil 151: 127-138Google Scholar
  78. Mosier AR (1994) Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils. Fert Res 37: 191-200Google Scholar
  79. Mosier AR & Parton WJ (1985) Denitrification in a shortgrass prairie: A modeling approach. In: Caldwell DE, Brierley JA & Brierley CL (eds) Planetary Ecology, pp 441-452. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., NY.Google Scholar
  80. Mosier AR & Bouwman AF (1993) Working group report: Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils. In: van Amstel AR (ed) Methane and Nitrous Oxide: Methods in National Emission Inventories and Options for Control Proceedings. 00 343-346. National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, the NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  81. Mosier AR, Schimel DS, Valentine D, Bronson KF & Parton WJ (1991) Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in native, fertilized, and cultivated grasslands. Nature 350: 330-332Google Scholar
  82. Mosier AR, Duxbury JM, Freney JR, Heinemeyer O & Minami K (1996) Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural fields: Assessment, measurement and mitigation. Plant and Soil 181: 95-108Google Scholar
  83. Mosier AR, Duxbury JM, Freney JR, Heinemeyer O & Minami K (1997) Mitigating agricultural emissions of nitrous oxide. Climatic Change (in press)Google Scholar
  84. Muller C, Sherlock RR & Williams PH (1995a) In-field method to determine N2O and N2 emissions from denitrification and N2O emissions from nitrification from urine-affected intensive pasture soil. Submitted to Soil Biology and BiochemistryGoogle Scholar
  85. Muller C, Sherlock RR & Williams PH (1995b) Factors influencing N2O emission from pasture soil affected by animal urine or ploughing. Submitted to European Journal of Soil ScienceGoogle Scholar
  86. Nevison CD, Esser G & Holland EA (1996) A Global Model of Changing N2O Emissions from Natural and Perturbed Soils. Climatic Change 32: 327-378Google Scholar
  87. Nobre AD (1994) Nitrous oxide emissions from tropical soils. Thesis. Univ. New Hampshire, Durham, NH. 141 ppGoogle Scholar
  88. Nykanen, Alm HJ, Loeng K, Silvola J & Martikainen PJ (1995) Emissions of CH4, N2O and CO2 from virgin fen and fen drained for grassland in Finland. J Biogeography 22: 351-357Google Scholar
  89. OECD/OCDE (1991) Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks. Final report from the OECD Experts Meeting, 18-21 Feb., 1991. Prepared for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Revised August, 1991Google Scholar
  90. Oenema O, Velthof GL, Yamulki S & Jarvis SC (1997) Nitrous oxide emission from grazed grassland. Soil Use Manage 13: 1-9Google Scholar
  91. Oenema O & Velthof GL (1993) Denitrification in nitric-acidtreated cattle slurry during storage. Netherlands J Agric Sci 41: 63-80Google Scholar
  92. O'Hara GW & Daniel RM (1985) Rhizobial denitrification: a review. Soil Biol Biochem 17: 1-9Google Scholar
  93. Oonk H & Kroeze C (1998) Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and control. In: RA Meyers (ed) Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation. John Wiley & Sons Inc (In Press).Google Scholar
  94. Owens NJP (1986) Estuarine nitrification: a naturally occurring fluidized bed reaction? Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 33: 31-44Google Scholar
  95. Parashar DC (1991) Measurement of greenhouse gas emissions in India. In: Impact of Global Climate Change on Photosynthesis and Plant Productivity, pp 625-640. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  96. Parton WJ, Mosier AR, Ojima DS, Valentine DW, Schimel DS, Weier K & Kulmala AE (1996) Generalized model for N2 and N2O production from nitrification and denitrification. Global Biogeochem Cycles 10: 401-412Google Scholar
  97. Peoples MB, Herridge DF & Ladha JK (1995) Biological nitrogen fixation: An efficient source of nitrogen for sustainable agricultural production? Plant and Soil 174: 3-28Google Scholar
  98. Poggemann S, Weissbach F & Kuenzel U (1995) N2O-Freisetzung von Exkrementflecken auf dem Weideland. Abstract. VDLUFA, Garmisch-Partenkirchen. p 275Google Scholar
  99. Pollaris L (1994) Emission of nitrous oxide from horticultural substrates. (In Dutch) M. Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences. University of Gent. 102 pGoogle Scholar
  100. Postma R, Oenema O, Bussink DW, Heinen M, & Van Mollenbroek J (1994) Gaseous Nitrogen Emissions from Lettuce Grown in Irrigated Sand Beds in Glasshouse Horticulture, pp 28-34. MeststoffenGoogle Scholar
  101. Potter CS, Matson PA, Vitousek PM & Davidson EA (1996) Process modeling of controls on nitrogen trace gas emissions from soils worldwide. J Geophys Res 101: 1361-1377Google Scholar
  102. Robertson GP (1993) Fluxes of nitrous oxide and other nitrogen trace gases from intensively managed landscapes. In: Harper LA, Mosier AR, Duxbury JM& Rolston DE (eds) Agroecosystem Effects on Radiatively Important Trace Gases and Global Climate Change, pp 95-108. ASA Special Publication No. 55. Amer Soc Agron, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  103. Robinson JB, Whiteley HR, Stammers W, Kaushik NK & Sain P (1979) The fate of nitrate in small streams and its management implications, pp 247-259. In: Proc 10th Annu Agric Waste Manage Conf Cornell UnivGoogle Scholar
  104. Ronen D, Margaritz M & Alman E (1988) Contaminated aquifers are a forgotten component of the global N2O budget. Nature 335: 57-59Google Scholar
  105. Ryden JC (1981) N2O exchange between a grassland soil and the atmosphere. Nature 292: 235-365Google Scholar
  106. Ryden JC (1983) Denitrification loss from a grassland soil in the field receiving different rates of nitrogen as ammonium nitrate. J Soil Sci 1983: 355-365Google Scholar
  107. Safley LM, Casada ME, Woodbury JW & Roos KW (1992) Global methane emissions from livestock and poultry manure. USEPA Report No. 400/1-91/048. Office of Air and Radiation, Washington, D.C. 68 p with 145 p annexesGoogle Scholar
  108. Schepers JS & Mosier AR (1991) Accounting for nitrogen in nonequilibrium soil-crop systems. In: Follett RF, Keeney DR & Cruse RM (eds) Managing Nitrogen for Groundwater Quality and Farm Profitability, pp 125-138. Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Madison, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  109. Schimel DS, Parton WJ, Adamsen FJ, Woodmansee RG, Senft RL & Stillwell MA (1986) The Role of Cattle in the Volatile Loss of Nitrogen from a Shortgrass Steppe. Biogeochemistry 2: 39-52Google Scholar
  110. Seitzinger SP (1988) Denitrification in freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems: ecological and geochemical implications. Limnol Oceanogr 33: 702-724Google Scholar
  111. Seitzinger SP (1990) Denitrification in aquatic sediments. In: Revsbech NP & Sorensen J (eds) Denitrification in Soil and Sediment, pp 301-312. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  112. Seitzinger SP & Kroeze C Estimates of the spatial distribution of N inputs, nitrous oxide production and denitrification in freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems. (in preparation)Google Scholar
  113. Sherlock RR & Goh KM (1983) Initial emission of nitrous oxide from sheep urine applied to pasture soil. Soil Biol Biochem 15: 615-617Google Scholar
  114. Sibbesen E & Lind AM (1993) Loss of nitrous oxide from animal manure dungheaps. Acta Agriculture Scandianavia Section B: Soil Plant Sci 43: 16-20Google Scholar
  115. Smith CJ, DeLaune RD & Patrick WH Jr (1985) Fate of riverine nitrate entering an estuary: I. Denitrification and nitrogen burial. Estuaries 8: 15-21Google Scholar
  116. Spoelstra SF (1985) Nitrate in silage. Grass Forage Sci 40: 1-11Google Scholar
  117. Steffens G & Vetter H (1990) Neue Faustzahlen ueber Nachrstoffgehalte und Naehrstoffanfall. Landwirtsschaftsblatt Weser-Ems. Vol. 3Google Scholar
  118. Swank WT & Caskey WH (1982) Nitrate depletion in a secondorder mountain stream. J Environ Qual 11: 581-584Google Scholar
  119. Thornton FC & Valente RJ (1996) Soil emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide from no-till corn. Soil Sci Soc Am J 60: 1127-1133Google Scholar
  120. Tiedje JM (1988) Ecology of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia. In: Zehnder AJB (ed) Biology of Anaerobic Microorganisms, pp 179-243. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  121. Ueda S, Ogura N & Wada E (1991) Nitrogen stable isotope ratio of groundwater N2O. Geophys Res Lett 18 (8): 1449-1452Google Scholar
  122. Ueda S, Ogura N & Yoshinari T (1993) Accumulation of nitrous oxide in aerobic groundwaters. Water Res 27 (12): 1787-1792Google Scholar
  123. Van Aardenne JA (1996) Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of an IPCC/OECD model for estimating N2O emissions from agricultural soils. AV milieusysteemanalyse H250-705, 29 November, 1996. Center for Environment and Climate Change Research, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, the Netherlands, 32 pGoogle Scholar
  124. Van Bochove E, Jones HG, Pelletier P & Prevost D (1996) Emission of N2O from agricultural soil under snow cover: A significant part of N budget. Hydrological Processes 10: 1545-1549Google Scholar
  125. Van Cleemput O, Vermoesen A, De Groot CJ & Van Ryckeghem K (1994) Nitrous oxide emission out of grassland. Environ Monitor Assessm 31: 145-152Google Scholar
  126. Van der Hoek KW (1994) Berekeningsmethodiek ammoniamemissie in Nederland voor de jaren 1990, 1991 en 1992. RIVM report No. 773004003Google Scholar
  127. Van Kessel JP (1977) Removal of nitrate from effluent following discharge on surface water. Water Res 11: 533-537Google Scholar
  128. Veldkamp E & Keller M (1997) Nitrogen oxide emissions from a banana plantation in the humid tropics. J Geophys Res (in press)Google Scholar
  129. Velthof GL, Brader AB & Oenema O (1996a) Seasonal variations in nitrous oxide losses from managed grasslands in the Netherlands. Plant and Soil 181: 263-274Google Scholar
  130. Velthof GL, Jarvis SC, Stein A, Allen AG & Oenema O (1996b) Spatial variability of nitrous oxide fluxes in mown and grazed grasslands on a poorly drained clay soil. Soil Biol Biochem 28: 1215-1225Google Scholar
  131. Velthof GL & Oenema O (1993) Orienterende lachgasemissiemetingen in RWZI's. NMI-Report 93.263. Wageningen. 6 ppGoogle Scholar
  132. Velthof GL & Oenema O (1994) Effect of nitrogen fertilizer type and urine on nitrous oxide flux from grassland in early spring. In: Mannetje L & Frame J (eds) Grassland and Society, pp 458-462. Proceedings of the 15th General Meeting of the European Grassland FederationGoogle Scholar
  133. Velthof GL& Oenema O (1995) Nitrous oxide fluxes from grassland in the Netherlands: II. Effects of soil type, nitrogen fertilizer application and grazing. European J Soil Sci 46: 541-549Google Scholar
  134. Vetter H, Klasink A & Steffens G (1989) Mist und Guelledue1ngung nach Mass. VDLUFA-Schriftenreihe. 19: 41-66Google Scholar
  135. Wagner-Riddle C & Thurtell GW (1998) Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural fields during winter and spring thaw as affected by management practices. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 52: 151-163Google Scholar
  136. Whitehead DC (1970) The role of nitrogen in grassland productivity. Bulletin 48 of Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, Hurley, UKGoogle Scholar
  137. WHO/UNEP (1989) Global Pollution and Health. Results of health related environmental monitoring, World Health Organization. Geneva and United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Yale Press, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arvin Mosier
  • Carolien Kroeze
  • Cindy Nevison
  • Oene Oenema
  • Sybil Seitzinger
  • Oswald van Cleemput

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations