Foundations of Science

, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 313–340 | Cite as

Inconsistencies in Constituent Theories of World Views: Quantum Mechanical Examples

  • Diederik Aerts
  • Jan Broekaert
  • Sonja Smets


We put forward the hypothesis that there exist three basic attitudes towards inconsistencies within world views: (1) The inconsistency is tolerated temporarily and is viewed as an expression of a temporary lack of knowledge due to an incomplete or wrong theory. The resolution of the inconsistency is believed to be inherent to the improvement of the theory. This improvement ultimately resolves the contradiction and therefore we call this attitude the ‘regularising’ attitude; (2) The inconsistency is tolerated and both contradicting elements in the theory are retained. This attitude integrates the inconsistency and leads to a paraconsistent calculus; therefore we will call it the paraconsistent attitude. (3) In the third attitude, both elements of inconsistency are considered to be false and the ‘real situation’ is considered something different that can not be described by the theory constructively. This indicates the incompleteness of the theory, and leads us to a paracomplete calculus; therefore we call it the paracomplete attitude. We illustrate these three attitudes by means of two ‘paradoxical’ situations in quantum mechanics, the wave-particle duality and the situation of non locality.

inconsistency non-locality paraconsistent paracomplete paradox quantum mechanics wave-particle duality world views 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diederik Aerts
    • 1
  • Jan Broekaert
    • 1
  • Sonja Smets
    • 1
  1. 1.Center Leo ApostelBrussels Free University, Krijgskundestraat 33BrusselsBelgium

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