Archives of Suicide Research

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 209–225 | Cite as

Parasuicide: The value of suicidal intent and various motives as predictors of future suicidal behaviour

  • Heidi Hjelmeland
  • Tore C. Stiles
  • Unni Bille-Brahe
  • Aini Ostamo
  • Ellinor Salander Renberg
  • Danuta Wasserman
Article

Abstract

The main aim of the study was to examine whether various aspects of suicidal intent or various motives for an index parasuicide can predict nonfatal or fatal repetition of suicidal behaviour. 776 parasuicide patients from 5 Nordic regions participating in the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Parasuicide were followed for one year. The Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) and the Motives for Parasuicide Questionnaire (MPQ) were used as predictor variables. A low level of suicidal intent predicted nonfatal repetition. The motive ''make things easier for someone'' differentiated female repeaters from male repeaters. The report of an unclear motive was the only significant predictor of fatal repetition. Suicidal intent and various motives for a parasuicide have some value in predicting repetition of suicidal behaviour, but should, perhaps, in future studies be combined with other variables in order to increase the predictive value.

intention motive parasuicide prediction repetition 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bancroft, J., Hawton, K., Simkin, S., Kingston, B., Cumming, C. & Whitwell, D. (1979). The reasons people give for taking overdoses: A further inquiry. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 353-365.Google Scholar
  2. Bancroft, J. H. J., Skrimshire, A. M. & Simkin, S. (1976). The reasons people give for taking overdoses. British Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 538-548.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, A. T., Schuyler, D. & Herman, I. (1974). Development of suicidal intent scales. In A. T. Beck, H. L. P. Resnik & D. J. Lettieri (Eds.), The prediction of suicide (pp. 45-56). Bowie, Maryland: Charles Press.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., et al. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561-571.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, A. T., Weissman, A., Lester, D. & Trexler, L. (1976). Classification of suicidal behaviors. II. Dimensions of suicidal intent. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 835-837.Google Scholar
  6. Bille-Brahe, U., Kerkhof, A., De Leo, D., Schmidtke, A., Crepet, P., Lönnqvist, J., Michel, K., Salander-Ranberg, E., Stiles, T. C., Wasserman, D., Egebo, H. (1996). A RepetitionPrediction Study on European parasuicide populations: Part II of the WHO/Euro Multi-centre Study on Parasuicide in cooperation with the EC concerted action on attempted suicide. Crisis, 17(1), 22-31.Google Scholar
  7. Buglass, D. & Horton, J. (1974). The repetition of parasuicide: A comparison of three cohorts. British Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 168-174.Google Scholar
  8. Hjelmeland, H. (1996a). Verbally expressed intentions of parasuicide. II. Prediction of fatal and non-fatal repetition. Crisis, 17(1), 10-14.Google Scholar
  9. Hjelmeland, H. (1996b). Repetition of parasuicide: a predicitive study. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 26(4), 395-404.Google Scholar
  10. Kerkhof, A., Bernasco, W, Bille-Brahe, U., et al. (1993). European Parasuicide Study Interview Schedule (EPSIS I). In WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Parasuicide. Facts and figures. (Bille-Brahe, U., et al). WHO EUR/ICP/PSF 018. Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  11. Kingsbury, S. J. (1993). Clinical components of suicidal intent in adolescent overdose. Journal of the American Academy of Children and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(3), 518-520.Google Scholar
  12. Kotila, L. & Lönnqvist, J. (1989). Suicide and violent death among adolescent suicide attempters. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 79, 453-459.Google Scholar
  13. Lester, D. & Beck, A. T. (1975). Suicidal intent, medical lethality of the suicide attempt, and components of depression. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31(1), 11-12.Google Scholar
  14. Mieczkowski, T. A., Sweeney, J. A., Haas, G. L., et al. (1993). Factor composition of the Suicide Intent Scale. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 23(1), 37-45.Google Scholar
  15. O'Brien, G., Holton, A. R., Hurren, K., et al. (1987). Deliberate self harm - correlates of suicidal intent and severity of depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 75, 474-477.Google Scholar
  16. Owens, D., Dennis, M., Read, S. & Davis, N. (1994). Outcome of deliberate self-poisoning. An examination of risk factors for repetition. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 797-801.Google Scholar
  17. Pallis, D. J., Gibbons, J. S. & Pierce, D. W. (1984). Estimating suicide risk among attempted suicides. II. Efficiency of predictive scales after the attempt. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 139-148.Google Scholar
  18. Pierce, D.W. (1977).Suicidal intent in self-injury. British Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 377-385.Google Scholar
  19. Pierce, D.W. (1981). The predictive validation of a suicide intent scale: A five year follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 391-396.Google Scholar
  20. Platt, S., Bille-Brahe, U., Kerkhof, A., Schmidtke, A., Bjerke, T., Crepet, P., De Leo, D., Haring, C., Lönnqvist, J., Michel, K., Philippe, A., Pommereau, X., Querejeta, I., Salander-Ranberg, E., Temasváry, B., Wasserman, D., Sampaio Favia, J. (1992). Parasuicide in Europe: The WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Parasuicide. I. Introduction and preliminary analysis for 1989. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 85, 97-104.Google Scholar
  21. Power, K. G., Cooke, D. J. & Brooks, D. N. (1985). Life stress, medical lethality, and suicidal intent. British Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 655-659.Google Scholar
  22. Reynolds, P. & Eaton, P. (1986). Multiple attempters of suicide presenting at an emergency department. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 31, 328-330.Google Scholar
  23. Schmidtke, A., Bille-Brahe, U., De Leo, D., et al. (1996). Attempted suicide in Europe: Rates, trends and sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempters during the period 1989-1992. Results of the WHO/EURO multicentre study on parasuicide. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 93, 327-338.Google Scholar
  24. Wang, A. G., Nielsen, B., Bille-Brahe, U., Hansen, W. & Kolmos, L. (1985). Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 72, 389-394.Google Scholar
  25. Wetzel, R. D. (1977). Factor structure of Beck's suicide intent scales. Psychological Reports, 40, 295-302.Google Scholar
  26. Öjehagen, A., Danielsson, M. & Träskman-Bendz, L. (1992). Deliberate self-poisoning: treatment follow-up of repeaters and nonrepeaters. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 85, 370-375.Google Scholar
  27. Öjehagen, A., Regnéll, G. & Träskman-Bendz, L. (1991). Deliberate self-poisoning: repeaters and nonrepeaters admitted to an intensive care unit. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 84, 266-271.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heidi Hjelmeland
    • 1
  • Tore C. Stiles
    • 1
  • Unni Bille-Brahe
    • 2
  • Aini Ostamo
    • 3
  • Ellinor Salander Renberg
    • 4
  • Danuta Wasserman
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural MedicineThe Norwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Unit for Suicidological ResearchOdenseDenmark
  3. 3.National Public Health InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of UmeåUmeåSweden
  5. 5.Centrum för Suicidforskning och -preventionStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations