Journal of Adult Development

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 149–160 | Cite as

Some Predictors of Primary Control of Development in Three Transitional Periods of Life

  • Katica Lacković-Grgin
  • Tomislav Grgin
  • Zvjezdan Penezić
  • Izabela Sorić


In the context of some personal control (mastery) theories (e.g., J. Heckhausen & R. Schultz, 1995; Gutmann, 1964), primary, secondary, and tertiary personal control of development among subjects in three transitional periods of life were investigated (D. J. Levinson, C. N. Darrow, E. B. Klein, M. H. Levinson, & B. McKee, 1978). Results confirmed the expectation that primary control decrease whereas secondary control increase with age. Tertiary control was the same in all transitional periods. There were some differences in contribution of predictors of primary control in the early, middle, and late period of transition. From the group of variables relating to personality traits, optimism proved a good predictor of primary control in the young and middle aged, whereas in old people who have the lowest primary control, none of the personality traits proved predictive. The importance of goals related to knowledge and competence (GKC) was a significant predictor in all three (age) groups.

primary control secondary control tertiary control optimism self-esteem developmental goals 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katica Lacković-Grgin
    • 1
  • Tomislav Grgin
    • 1
  • Zvjezdan Penezić
    • 1
  • Izabela Sorić
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Science in ZadarUniversity of SplitCroatia

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