Self-Organization and Leadership Emergence: A Cross-Cultural Replication

  • Gonzalo Zaror
  • Stephen J. Guastello


Project examined the cross-cultural generalizability of a model for leadership emergence based on the rugged landscape self-organization and the swallowtail catastrophe. Twelve groups of eight Chilean university students played the Island Commission game and rated each other on leadership behavior at the end of the one-hour activity. Analysis confirmed the replication of dynamical structure and critical points obtained previously from a U.S. sample.

emergence leadership rugged landscape self-organization swallowtail catastrophe South America 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ayman, R., & Chemers, M. M. (1983). Relationship of supervisory behavior ratings to work group effectiveness and subordinate satisfaction among Iranian managers. Journal of Applied Psychology 68, 338-341.Google Scholar
  2. Casimir, G., & Keats, D. (1996). The effects of work environment and in-group membership on the leadership preferences of Anglo-American and Chinese Australians. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 27, 436-457.Google Scholar
  3. Cattell, R. B., & Stice, G. F. (1954). Four formulae for selecting leaders on the basis of personality. Human Relations, 7, 493-507.Google Scholar
  4. Gerstner, C. R., & Day, D. V. (1997). Meta-analytic review of leader-member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 827-844.Google Scholar
  5. Gibson, C. B., & Marcoulides, G. A. (1995). The invariance of leadership styles across four countries. Journal of Management Issues, 7, 176-192.Google Scholar
  6. Graen, G. B, & Uhl-Bein, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multilevel multi-domain perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 6, 219-247.Google Scholar
  7. Graen, G. B., Wakabayashi, M., Graen, M. R., & Graen, M. G. (1990). International generalizability of American hypotheses about Japanese management progress:A strong inference investigation. Leadership Quarterly, 1, 1-24.Google Scholar
  8. Guastello, S. J. (1995a). Chaos, catastrophe, and human affairs: Applications of nonlinear dynamics to work, organizations, and social evolution. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  9. Guastello, S. J. (1995b). Facilitative style, individual innovation, and emergent leadership in problem solving groups. Journal of Creative Behavior, 29, 225-239.Google Scholar
  10. Guastello, S. J. (1998). Self-organization and leadership emergence. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 2, 301-315.Google Scholar
  11. Guastello, S. J., Hyde, T., & Odak, M. (1998). Symbolic dynamic patterns of verbal exchange in a creative problem solving group. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 2, 35-58.Google Scholar
  12. Hermans, H. J. M., & Kempen, H. J. G. (1998). Moving cultures: The perilous problems of cultural dichotomies in a globalizing society. American Psychologist, 53, 1111-1120.Google Scholar
  13. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture' consequences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Kauffman, S. A. (1993). The origins of order: Self-organization and selection in evolution. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Kauffman, S. (1995). At home in the universe: Self-organization and selection in evolution. New York, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Misumi, J. (1985). The behavioral science of leadership: An interdisciplinary Japanese research program. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  17. Rhody, J. D., Tang, T. L-P. (1995). Learning from Japanese transplants and American corporations. Public Personnel Management, 24, 19-32.Google Scholar
  18. Segall, M. H., Lonner, W. J., & Berry, J. W. (1998). Cross-cultural psychology as a scholarly discipline: On the flowering of culture in behavioral research. American Psychologist, 53, 1101-1110.Google Scholar
  19. Seers, A. (1989). Team-member exchange quality: A new construct for role-making research. Organizational Behavior & Human Processes, 43, 118-135.Google Scholar
  20. Settoon, R. P., Bennett, N., & Liden, R. C. (1996). Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader-member exchange, and employee reciprocity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 219-227.Google Scholar
  21. Smith, P. B., Misumi, J., Tayeb, M., & Peterson, M. et al. (1989). On the generality of leadership style measures across cultures. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 62, 97-109.Google Scholar
  22. Swierczek, F. W. (1991). Leadership and culture: Comparing Asian managers. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 12, 3-10.Google Scholar
  23. Swinth, R. L., & Tuggle, F. D (1971). A complete dyadic process model of four man group problem solving. Organizational Behavior & Human Performance, 5, 517-549.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gonzalo Zaror
    • 1
  • Stephen J. Guastello
    • 2
  1. 1.Universidad Francisco de AguirreLa SerenaChile
  2. 2.Marquette UniversityMilwaukee

Personalised recommendations