True Nature: A Theory of Human Sexual Evolution. Parts 2–4

  • Christopher Gomes
Article
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

Intelligence is of greater species survival value than instincts over long evolutionary periods. Sufficient increases in the intelligence of a species cause natural selection to favor a corresponding decrease in the species' instinctive makeup. The human line uniquely crossed a threshold of intelligence during evolution that allowed humans to lose their sexual instinct. Devoid of a sexual instinct, human sexual orientation is fully a function of individual experience. Exploratory behaviors that infants innately display involving their own body have the greatest potential to bias the formation of a homosexual orientation. To survive, societies have always had to counter this natural developmental pathway with a social environment that has encouraged heterosexuality and to varying extents restricted the expression of homosexuality.

intelligence instinct evolution sexual orientation homosexuality 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    Blumenfeld WJ, Raymond, D. Looking at Gay and Lesbian Life. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988:44.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Weinrich JD. Is homosexuality biologically natural? In: Paul W, Weinrich JD, Gonsiorek JC, Hotvedt, ME, editors, Homosexuality: Social, Psychological, and Biological Issues. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1982.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ernulf KE, Innala SM, Whitam FL. Biological explanation, psychological explanation, and tolerance of homosexuals: a cross-national analysis of beliefs and attitudes. Psychol Rep 1989;65:1003-10.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sanderson SK, Ellis L. Theoretical and political perspectives of American sociologists in the 1990's. Am Sociol 1992;23: 26-42.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bhugra D. Doctor's attitudes to male homosexuality: a survey. Sexual Marital Ther 1990;5:167-74.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leo J. Homosexuality: tolerance versus approval. Time Jan 8, 1979:48-49, 51.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tannahill R. Sex in History. Chelsea, MI: Scarborough House, 1992.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Spencer C. Homosexuality: A History. London: Fourth Estate Limited, 1995:14.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Geist V. Mountain Sheep: A Study in Behaviour and Evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    De Waal F. Peacemaking Among Primates. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bingham HC. Sex Development in Apes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1928.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ehrhardt AA, Meyer-Bahlburg HFL. Effects of prenatal sex hormones on gender-related behaviour. Science 1981;211: 1312-1318.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Janus S, Janus C. The Janus Report on Sexual Behavior. New York: Wiley, 1993.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Herdt G. Same Sex, Different Cultures. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997:11, 13.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Herdt GH. Ritualized Homosexuality in Melanesia. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1984.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Deacon B. Malekula:AVanishing People in the New Hebrides. London: Routledge, 1934.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ford CS, Beach FA. Patterns of Sexual Behaviour. New York: Harper, 1951.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Greenberg F. The Construction of Homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hinsch B. Passions of the Cut Sleeve. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cantarella E. Bisexuality in the Ancient World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Veyne P. Homosexuality in ancient Rome. In: Aries P, Bejin, A., editors, Western Sexuality: Practice and Precept in Past and Present Times. Oxford: Blackwell, 1985.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Watanabe T, Iwata J. The Love of the Samurai. London: Gay Men's Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Trumbach R. The birth of the queen: sodomy and the emergence of gender equality in modern culture, 1660-1750. In:Duberman MB, Vicinus M, Chauncey G, editors, Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past, London: Penguin, 1991.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rich A. Compulsory heterosexuality. Signs J Women Culture Soc 1980;5(4):635.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Blackwood E. Breaking the mirror: the construction of lesbianism and the anthropological approaches to homosexual behavior. In: Blackwood E, editor, TheMany Faces of Homosexuality: Anthropological Approaches to Homosexual Behavior. New York: Harrington Park Press, 1986, p. 10.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sankar A. Sisters and brothers, lovers and enemies: marriage resistance in Southern Kwangtung. In: Blackwood E, editor, The Many Faces of Homosexuality: Anthropological Approaches to Homosexual Behavior. New York: Harrington Park Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gough K. The origin of the family. In: Reiter R, editor, Toward an Anthropology of Women. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1975:69-70.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Keeton WT. Biological Science, 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1980:492.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Calvin WH. How Brains Think. New York: Basic Books, 1996:59-60.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Restak R. Brainscapes. New York: Hyperion, 1995:34.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gomes, C. True nature: a theory of human sexual evolution. Part 1. J Gay Lesbian Med Assoc 2000;2:19-29.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Circumcision. In Encyclopedia Britannica, Fifteenth edition, 1997, volume 3:328.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Taylor T. The Prehistory of Sex. London: Fourth Estate Limited, 1996.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Topp S. Why not to circumcise your baby boy. In: O'Mara P, editor, Circumcision: The Rest of the Story, A Selection of Articles, Letters, and Resources 1979-1993. Santa Fe, NM: Mothering, 1993.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Parrinder G. Sex in the World's Religions. London: Sheldon, 1980.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Leakey RE. The Making of Mankind. New York: Rainbird, 1981.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Morgan E. The Aquatic Ape. London: Souvenir Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Weller A. Human pheromones. Communication through body odour (news; comment). Nature 1998; 392:126-127.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    McClintock MK. Menstrual synchorony and suppression. Nature 1971;229:244-45.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Russell MJ, Switz GM, Thompson K. Olfactory influences on the human menstrual cycle. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1980;13(5):737-38.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Stern K, and McClintock M K. Regulation of ovulation by human pheromones. Nature 1998;392:177-179.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Adams DB, Gold AR, Burt AD. Rise in female-initiated sexual activity at ovulation and its suppression by oral contraceptives. N Engl J Med 1978;299:1145-50.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Morris NM, Udry JR, Khan-Dawood E, Dawood MY. Marital sex frequency and midcycle female testosterone. Archiv Sex Behav 1987;16:27-37.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wallen K, Mann DR, Davis-DaSilva M, Gaventa S, Lovejoy JC, Collins DC. Chronic gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment suppresses ovulation and sexual behaviour in group-living female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Anim Behav 1986;36:369-75.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Doty RL, Ford M, Preti G, Huggins GR. Changes in the intensity and pleasantness of human vaginal odours during the menstrual cycle. Science 1975;190:1316-1318.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Graziadei PPP. Functional anatomy of the mammalian chemoreceptor system. In: Muller-Schwarze D, Mozell MM, editors. Chemical Signals in Vertebrates. New York: Plenum Press, 1977:435-54.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Garcia-Velasco J, Mondragon M. The incidence of the vomeronasal organ in 1000 human subjects and its possible clinical significance. J Ster Bioch Mol Biol 1991;39:651-63.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Monti-Bloch L, Diaz-Sanchez V, Jennings-White C, Berliner DL. Modulation of serum testosterone and autonomic function through stimulation of the male human vomeronasal system (VNO) with Pregna-4,20-diene-3,6-dione. J Ster Bioch Mol Biol 1998;65:237-42.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Berliner DL, Monti-Bloch L, Jennings-White C, Diaz-Sanchez V. The functionality of the human vomeronasal organ (VNO): evidence for steroid receptors. J Ster Bioch Mol Biol 1996;58(3):259-65.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Monti-Bloch L, Jennings-White C, Dolberg DS, Berliner DL. The human vomeronasal system. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1994;19:673-86.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Johns MA, Feder HH, Komisaruk BR, Mayer AD. Urineinduced ovulation in anovulatory rats may be a vomeronasal effect. Nature 1978;272:446-48.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wysocki CJ. Neurobehavioural evidence for the involvement of the vomeronasal system in mammalian reproduction. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1979;3:301-41.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Meredith M, Fernandez-Fewell G. Vomeronasal system, LHRH, and sex behaviour. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1994;19:657-72.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Johns MA. The role of the vomeronasal system in mammalian reproductive physiology. In: Muller-Schwarze D, Silverstein RM, editors, Chemical Signals, Vertebrates and Aquatic Invertebrates. New York: Plenum Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Keverne EB. Pheromonal influences on the endocrine regulation of reproduction. Trends Neurosci 1983;6:381-84.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Beltramino C, McGrew W. Menstrual synchrony in female undergraduates living on coeducational campus. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1983;5:245-52.Google Scholar

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. 57.
    Allman WF. Apprentices of Wonder-Inside the Neural Network Revolution.New York: Bantam Books, 1989.Google Scholar
  2. 58.
    Black IB. Information in the Brain-A Molecular Perspective. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  3. 59.
    Churchland PM. The Engine of Reason, the Seat of the Soul-A Philosophical Journey into the Brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  4. 60.
    Harth E. Windows on the Mind-Reflections on the Physical Basis of Consciousness. New York: Morrow, 1982.Google Scholar
  5. 61.
    Harth E. The Creative Loop-How the Brain Makes a Mind. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1993.Google Scholar
  6. 62.
    Leakey RE. The Making of Mankind. New York: Elsevier-Dutton, 1981.Google Scholar
  7. 63.
    Miller L. Inner Natures-Brain, Self and Personality. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  8. 64.
    Morris D. The Naked Ape Trilogy. London: Jonathan Cape, 1994.Google Scholar
  9. 65.
    Penfield W. The Mystery of the Mind. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  10. 66.
    Prochiantz A. How the Brain Evolved. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989.Google Scholar
  11. 67.
    Restak R. The Brain Has a Mind of Its Own-Insights from a Practicing Neurologist. New York: Harmony Books, 1991.Google Scholar
  12. 68.
    Rowse AL. Homosexuals in History-A Study of Ambivalence in Society Literature and the Arts. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977.Google Scholar
  13. 69.
    Sagan C. The Dragons of Eden-Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence. New York: Random House, 1977.Google Scholar
  14. 70.
    Taylor T. The Prehistory of Sex-Four Million Years of Human Sexual Culture. London: Fourth Estate, 1996.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Gay and Lesbian Medical Association 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher Gomes
    • 1
  1. 1.BramptonCanada L6X 1J1

Personalised recommendations