Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 16, Issue 2–3, pp 119–152 | Cite as

Juvenile Gambling in North America: An Analysis of Long Term Trends and Future Prospects

  • Durand F. Jacobs
Article

Abstract

Long term trends, based on findings from twenty independent prevalence studies surveying middle and high school youth in North America, suggest that within the past year two out of three legally underage youth have gambled for money. In the United States and Canada as many as 15.3 million 12–17 year olds have been gambling with or without adult awareness or approval, and 2.2 million of these are experiencing serious gambling-related problems. Lottery play dominates legalized forms of gambling among juveniles in both the United States and Canada. Trends between 1984–1999 indicate a substantial increase in the proportion of juveniles who report gambling within the past year, and a parallel increase in the proportion of juveniles reporting serious gambling-related problems. Yet, there continues to be little public awareness or concern about the extent, or the potential hazards associated with juvenile gambling. A composite profile of juveniles reporting numerous gambling problems is contrasted with their peers who reported few or none. Future prospects concerning this growing problem are offered.

Juvenile gambling juvenile gambling trends juvenile problem gambler juvenile delinquency gambling and dissociation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. American Gaming Association. (1996, 1998). Responsible Gaming Resource Guide. Washington, DC: American Gaming Association.Google Scholar
  2. Arcuri, A. F., Lester, D., & Smith, F. (1985). Shaping adolescent gambling behavior. Adolescence, 20, 935-938.Google Scholar
  3. Custer, R. L., & Custer, L. F. (1978). Characteristics of the recovering compulsive gambler: A survey of 150 members of Gamblers Anonymous. Paper presented at the Fourth National Conference on Gambling, Reno, NV.Google Scholar
  4. Custer, R. L., & Milt, H. (1985). When luck runs out. New York: Facts on File Publications.Google Scholar
  5. Elia, C., & Jacobs, D. F. (1993). The incidence of pathological gambling among Native Americans treated for alcohol dependence. The International Journal of the Addictions, 28 (7), 659-666.Google Scholar
  6. Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. L. (1996). The relationship between gambling and videogame playing behavior in children and adolescents. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12 (4) 375-394.Google Scholar
  7. Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. L. (1998a). An empirical examination of Jacobs' General Theory of Addictions: Do adolescent gamblers fit the theory? Journal of Gambling Studies, 14 (1), 17-49.Google Scholar
  8. Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. L. (1998b). Adolescent gambling behavior: A prevalence study and examination of the correlates associated with problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14 (4), 319-345.Google Scholar
  9. Insight Canada Research. (1994, December). An exploration of the prevalence of pathological gambling behaviour among adolescents in Ontario. Report prepared for the Canadian Foundation on Compulsive Gambling. Toronto, Ontario: Author.Google Scholar
  10. Jacobs, D. F. (1982). The addictive personality syndrome: A new theoretical model for understanding and treating addictions. In W. R. Eadington (Ed.), The gambling papers, vol. 2: Pathological gambling, theory and practice (pp 1-55). Reno: University of Nevada.Google Scholar
  11. Jacobs, D. F. (1984a). Factors alleged as predisposing to compulsive gambling. In Sharing recovery through Gamblers Anonymous (pp.227-233). Los Angeles, CA: Gamblers Anonymous Publishing Inc.Google Scholar
  12. Jacobs, D. F. (1984b). Study of traits leading to compulsive gambling. In Sharing recovery through Gamblers Anonymous (pp. 120-123). Los Angeles, CA: Gamblers Anonymous Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  13. Jacobs, D. F. (1985). Evidence for a common state of altered identity among addicts. Paper presented at the 93rd Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  14. Jacobs, D. F. (1986). A General Theory of Addictions: A new theoretical model. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2, 15-31.Google Scholar
  15. Jacobs, D. F. (1988a). Evidence for a common dissociative reaction among addicts. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 27-37.Google Scholar
  16. Jacobs, D. F. (1988b). Problem gamblers and white collar crime. In W. R. Eadington (Ed.), Gambling research: Gamblers and gambler behavior. College of Business Administration. Reno: University of Nevada-Reno.Google Scholar
  17. Jacobs, D. F. (1989a). Illegal and undocumented: A review of teenage gambling and the plight of children of problem gamblers in America. In H. J. Shaffer, S. Stein, B. Gambino, & T. Cummings (Eds.), Compulsive gambling: Theory, research and practice (pp. 249-292). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  18. Jacobs, D. F. (1989b). A General Theory of Addictions: Rationale for and evidence supporting a new approach for understanding and treating addictive behaviors. In H. J. Shaffer, S. Stein, B. Gambino, & T. Cummings (Eds.), Compulsive gambling: Theory, research and practice (pp. 35-64). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  19. Jacobs, D. F. (1990a). Focus on teenage gamblers. Behavior Today, 21, 1-4.Google Scholar
  20. Jacobs, D. F. (1990b). Gambling behaviors of high school students: Implications for governmentsupported gambling. In C. S. Campbell & J. Lowman (Eds.) Gambling in Canada: Golden Goose or Trojan Horse? Burnaby, British Columbia: Simon Fraser University.Google Scholar
  21. Jacobs, D. F. (1992). Prevalence of problem gambling among hospitalized adult male substance abusers. Paper presented at the Sixth National Conference on Gambling Behavior, Cleveland, OH.Google Scholar
  22. Jacobs, D. F. (1994). Evidence supporting the “Pied Piper Effect” of lottery promotion and sales on juvenile gambling. Paper presented at the Eighth National Conference on Gambling Behavior, Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  23. Jacobs, D. F., (1995). A 14 year old plays cards for cash: Is it more than fun and games? The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 4, 1-3.Google Scholar
  24. Jacobs, D. F. (1998, September). An overarching theory of addictions: A new paradigm for understanding and treating addictive behaviors. Paper presented at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  25. Jacobs, D. F., Marston, A. R., & Singer, R. D. (1985a). Study of gambling and other health-threatening behaviors among high school students. Unpublished manuscript. Loma Linda, CA: Jerry L. Pettis Memorial Veterans Hospital.Google Scholar
  26. Jacobs, D. F., Marston, A. R., & Singer, R. D. (1985b). Testing a General Theory of Addictions: Similarities and differences between alcoholics, pathological gamblers and compulsive overeaters. In J. J. Sanchez-Soza (Ed.), Health and clinical psychology (pp. 265-310). Amsterdam, Holland: Elcevier Publishers.Google Scholar
  27. Jacobs, D. F., Marston, A. R., & Singer, R. D. (1987). A post-lottery study of gambling behaviors among high school students. Unpublished research study. Loma Linda, CA: Jerry L. Pettis Memorial Veterans Hospital.Google Scholar
  28. Jacobs, D. F., Marston, A. R., Singer, R. D., Widaman, K., Little, T., & Veizades, J. (1989). Children of problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 5, 261-268.Google Scholar
  29. Johnston, L., Bachman, J., & O'Malley, P. (1979). 1979 Highlights: Drugs and the nation's high school students: Five year national trends. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  30. Kallick, M., Suits, D., Dielman, T., & Hybels, J. (1976). Survey of American gambling attitudes and behavior. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  31. Keating, P. (1996, May). Lotto fever: We all lose! Money, 142-149.Google Scholar
  32. Kuley, N., & Jacobs, D. F. (1987). A pre-lottery benchmark study of teenage gambling in Virginia. Unpublished research study. Loma Linda, CA: Loma Linda University Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  33. Kuley, N., & Jacobs, D. F. (1988). The relationship between dissociative-like experiences and sensation seeking among social and problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 197-207.Google Scholar
  34. Kuley, N., & Jacobs, D. F. (1989). A post-lottery impact study of effects on teenage gambling behaviors. Unpublished research study. Loma Linda, CA: Loma Linda University Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  35. Ladouceur, R., Dubé, D., & Bujold, D. (1994). Gambling among primary school students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 10, 363-370.Google Scholar
  36. Ladouceur, R., & Mireault, C. (1988). Gambling behaviors among high school students in the Québec area. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 3-12.Google Scholar
  37. Lesieur, H. R. (1987a). Gambling, pathological gambling and crime. In T. Galski (Ed.), The handbook of pathological gambling (pp. 89-110). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  38. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184-1188.Google Scholar
  39. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1991). Evaluation of patients treated for pathological gambling in a combined alcohol, substance abuse and pathological gambling treatment unit using the Addiction Severity Index. British Journal of Addictions, 86, 1017-1028.Google Scholar
  40. Lesieur, H. R., & Klein, R. (1984). Gambling among high school students in New Jersey. Unpublished research study. New York: John Jay College.Google Scholar
  41. Lesieur, H. R., & Klein, R. (1987). Pathological gambling among high school students. Addictive Behaviors, 12, 129-135.Google Scholar
  42. Milgram, G. G. (1982). Youthful drinking: Past and present. Journal of Drug Education, 12, 289-308.Google Scholar
  43. National Council on Problem Gambling. (1999). National survey of problem gambling programs. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  44. National Opinion Research Center. (1999). Overview of National Survey and Community Database Research on Gambling Behavior. Report to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  45. Nechi Training, Research and Health Promotion Institute. (1995). Firewatch on aboriginal adolescent gambling. Edmonton, Canada.Google Scholar
  46. Omnifacts Research Limited. (1993). An examination of the prevalence of gambling in Nova Scotia. Research Report Number 93090 for the Nova Scotia Department of Health, Drug Dependency Services. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Author.Google Scholar
  47. Pertzoff, L. (1990). Americans with Disabilities Act: Compulsive gamblers not covered. Delaware Council on Gambling Problems Newsletter #6.Google Scholar
  48. Ramirez, L. F., McCormick, R. A., Russo, A. M., & Taber, J. I. (1984). Patterns of substance abuse in pathological gamblers undergoing treatment: Addictive Behaviors, 8, 425-428.Google Scholar
  49. Rupcich, N., Govoni, R., & Frisch, G. (in press). Gambling behavior of adolescent gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies.Google Scholar
  50. Shaffer, H. J., Hall, M. N., & Bilt, J. V. (1997). Estimating the prevalence of disordered gambling behavior in the United States and Canada: A meta-analysis. Project funded by the National Center for Responsible Gambling. Kansas City, Missouri.Google Scholar
  51. Shaffer, H. J., LaBrie, R., Scanlan, K. M., & Cummings, T. N. (1994). Pathological gambling among adolescents: Massachusetts Adolescent Gambling Screen (MAGS). Journal of Gambling Studies, 10, 339-362.Google Scholar
  52. Steinberg, M. (1988). Gambling behavior among high school students in Connecticut. Paper presented at the Third National Conference on Gambling. New London, CT.Google Scholar
  53. Stinchfield, R., Cassuto, N., Winters, K., & Latimer, W. (1997). Prevalence of gambling among Minnesota public school students in 1992 and 1995. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13 (1), 25-48.Google Scholar
  54. Taber, J. I., & McCormick, R. A. (1987). The pathological gambler in treatment. In T. Galski (Ed.), The handbook of pathological gambling (pp. 137-168).Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  55. Volberg, R. A. (1993). Gambling and problem gambling in Washington state. Report to the Washington State Lottery. Albany, NY: Gemini Research.Google Scholar
  56. Volberg, R. A. (1996). Gambling and problem gambling in Georgia. Report to the Georgia Department of Health. Roaring Springs, PA: Gemini Research.Google Scholar
  57. Volberg, R. A., & Abbott, M. W. (1994). Lifetime prevalence estimates of pathological gambling in New Zealand. International Journal of Epidemiology, 23, 976-983.Google Scholar
  58. Volberg, R. A., & Moore, W. L. (1999). Gambling and problem gambling among adolescents in Washington State: A replication study, 1993–1999. A report to the Washington State Lottery. Gemini Research.Google Scholar
  59. Wallisch, L. (1993). Gambling in Texas: The 1992 Texas survey of adolescent gambling behavior. Austin, TX: Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  60. Wallisch, L. (1995). Gambling in Texas: The 1995 Texas survey of adolescent gambling behavior. Austin, TX: Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  61. Westphal, J. R., Rush, J. A., Stevens, L., & Johnson, L. J. (1998). Pathological gambling among Louisiana students: Grades six through twelve. Paper presented at the American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting. Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  62. Winters, K. C., & Anderson, N. (2000). Gambling involvement and drug use among adolescents. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16 (2/3), 175-198.Google Scholar
  63. Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R., & Fulkerson, J. (1990). Adolescent survey of gambling behavior in Minnesota: A benchmark. Report to the Department of Human Services Mental Health Division. Duluth, MN: Center for Addiction Studies, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  64. Winters, K. C., & Stinchfield, R. D. (1993). Gambling behavior among Minnesota youth: Monitoring change from 1990 to 1991/1992. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Center for Adolescent Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
  65. Wynne, H. J., Smith, G. J., & Jacobs, D. F. (1996). Adolescent gambling and problem gambling in Alberta. Alberta, Canada: Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission.Google Scholar
  66. Zitzow, D. (1993, July). Incidence and comparative study of compulsive gambling behaviors between Indians and non-Indians within and near a northern plains reservation. Paper presented at The Third National Conference on Gambling Behavior, New London, CT.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Durand F. Jacobs
    • 1
  1. 1.Loma Linda University Medical CenterUSA

Personalised recommendations