Advertisement

Journal of Mammalian Evolution

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 133–146 | Cite as

Attockicetus praecursor, A New Remingtonocetid Cetacean from Marine Eocene Sediments of Pakistan

  • J. G. M. Thewissen
  • S. T. Hussain
Article

Abstract

A new early-to-middle Eocene cetacean from the Kala Chitta Hills of northern Pakistan is described: Attockicetus praecursor new genus and species. It is based on fragmentary cranial material, including a rostral fragment, P3–M3, endocast, and ectotympanic. Attockicetus is the first remingtonocetid from northern Pakistan, and the oldest member of its family. Attockicetus praecursor is smaller than the species of the other remingtonocetid genera, Remingtonocetus, Andrewsiphius, and Dalanistes. It is also more primitive in the retention of large protocones on the upper molars and the anterior position of the orbit. Known material for Attockicetus is fragmentary, but the taxon is important because it extends the geographic and temporal range of remingtonocetids, is one of the few remingtonocetids in which toothcrowns are preserved, and because it is probably the most plesiomorphic remingtonocetid.

Cetacea Remingtonocetidae Eocene Indo-Pakistan 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

LITERATURE CITED

  1. Bajpai, S., and Thewissen, J. G. M. (1998). Middle Eocene cetaceans from the Harudi and Subathu Formations of India. In: The Emergence of Whales, Evolutionary Patterns in the Origin of Cetacea, J. G. M. Thewissen, ed., pp. 213–234, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Bajpai, S., Thewissen, J. G. M., and Sahni, A. (1996) Indocetus (Cetacea, Mammalia) endocasts from Kachchh (India). J. Vertebr. Paleont. 16:582–584.Google Scholar
  3. Biswas, S. K. (1992). Tertiary stratigraphy of Kutch. J. Paleont. Soc. India 37:1–29.Google Scholar
  4. Dart, R. A. (1923). The brain of the Zeuglodontidae (Cetacea). Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1923:615–654.Google Scholar
  5. Fatmi, A. N. (1974). Lithostratigraphic units of the Kohat-Potwar Province, Indus Basin, Pakistan. Mem. Geol. Surv. Pakistan 10:1–80.Google Scholar
  6. Geisler, J. H., and Luo, Z. (1998). Relationships of Cetacea to terrestrial ungulates and the evolution of cranial vasculature in Cete. In: The Emergence of Whales, Evolutionary Patterns in the Origin of Cetacea, J. G. M. Thewissen, ed., pp. 163–212, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Gingerich, P. D. (1991). Partial skeleton of a new archaeocete from the earliest middle Eocene Habib Rahi Limestone, Pakistan. J. Vertebr. Paleont. 11:31A.Google Scholar
  8. Gingerich, P. D., and Russell, D. E. (1981). Pakicetus inachus, a new archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the early-middle Eocene Kuldana Formation of Kohat (Pakistan). Contrib. Mus. Paleont. Univ. Michigan 25:235–246.Google Scholar
  9. Gingerich, P. D., Wells, N. A., Russell, D. E., and Shah, S. M. I. (1983). Origin of whales in epicontinental remnant seas: new evidence from the early Eocene of Pakistan. Science 220:403–406.Google Scholar
  10. Gingerich, P. D., Arif, M., Bhatti, A. M., Raza, H. A., and Raza, S. M. (1995a). Protosiren and Babiacetus (Mammalia, Sirenia and Cetacea) from the middle Eocene Drazinda Formation, Sulaiman Range, Punjab (Pakistan). Contrib. Mus. Paleont. Univ. Michigan 29:331–357.Google Scholar
  11. Gingerich, P. D., Arif, M., and Clyde, W. C. (1995b). New archaeocetes (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the middle Eocene Domanda Formation of the Sulaiman Range, Punjab (Pakistan). Contrib. Mus. Paleont. Univ. Michigan 29:291–330.Google Scholar
  12. Kumar, K., and Sahni, A. (1986). Remingtonocetus harudiensis, new combination, a middle Eocene archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from western Kutch, India. J. Vertebr. Paleont. 6:326–349.Google Scholar
  13. Luo, Z., and Gingerich, P. D. (1999). Terrestrial Mesonychia to aquatic Cetacea: Transformation of the basicranium and evolution of hearing in whales. Papers Paleontol. Univ. Michigan 31:1–98.Google Scholar
  14. O'Leary, M. A., and Geisler, J. H. (1999). The position of Cetacea within Mammalia: Phylogenetic analysis of morphological data. Syst. Biol. 48:491–522.Google Scholar
  15. O'Leary, M. A., and Uhen, M. D. (1999). The time of origin of whales and the role of behavioral changes in the terrestrial-aquatic transition. Paleobiology 25:534–556.Google Scholar
  16. Pivnik, D. A., and Wells, N. A. (1996). The transition from Tethys to the Himalaya as recorded in northwest Pakistan. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 108:1295–1313.Google Scholar
  17. Sahni, A., and Mishra, V. P. (1972). A new species of Protocetus (Cetacea) from the middle Eocene of Kutch, Western India. Palaeontology 15:490–495.Google Scholar
  18. Sahni, A., and Mishra, V. P. (1975). Lower Tertiary vertebrates from western India. Monogr. Palaeontol. Soc. India 3:1–48.Google Scholar
  19. Stromer, E. (1908). Die Archaeoceti des Aegyptischen Eozaens. Beitr. Palaeontol. Geol. Oesterreich-Ungarns Orient 21:1–14.Google Scholar
  20. Thewissen, J. G. M. (1998). Cetacean origins: Evolutionary turmoil during the invasion of the oceans. In: The Emergence of Whales, Evolutionary Patterns in the Origin of Cetacea, J. G. M. Thewissen, ed., pp. 451–464, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Thewissen, J. G. M., and Bajpai, S. (in review). Dental morphology of Remingtonocetidae (Cetacea, Mammalia). J. Paleont. Google Scholar
  22. Thewissen, J. G. M., and Hussain, S. T. (1993). Origin of underwater hearing in whales. Nature (London) 361:444–445.Google Scholar
  23. Thewissen, J. G. M., and Hussain, S. T. (1998). Systematic review of the Pakicetidae, early and middle Eocene Cetacea (Mammalia) from Pakistan and India. Bull. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. 34:220–238.Google Scholar
  24. Thewissen, J. G. M., Hussain, S. T., and Arif, M. (1994). Fossil evidence for the origin of aquatic locomotion in archaeocete whales. Science 263:210–212.Google Scholar
  25. Thewissen, J. G. M., Madar, S. I., and Hussain, S. T. (1996). Ambulocetus natans, an Eocene cetacean (Mammalia) from Pakistan. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg 190:1–86.Google Scholar
  26. Thewissen, J. G. M., Hussain, S. T., Arif, M., Aslan, A., Madar, S. I., and Roe, L. J. (1998). New localities of Eocene vertebrates in northern Pakistan and their significance for the origin of modern orders of mammals. In: Proceedings of the Third GEOSAS Workshop, Islamabad, Pakistan, M. I. Ghaznavi, S. M. Raza, and M. T. Hasan, eds., pp. 19–34, Islamabad, Pakistan.Google Scholar
  27. Uhen, M. D. (1998). Middle to Late Eocene basilosaurines and dorudontines. In: The Emergence of Whales, Evolutionary Patterns in the Origin of Cetacea, J. G. M. Thewissen, ed., pp. 29–62, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Uhen, M. D. (1999). New species of protocetid archaeocete whale, Eocetus wardii (Mammalia, Cetacea), from the middle Eocene of North Carolina. J. Paleontol. 73:512–528.Google Scholar
  29. Wells, N. A. (1984). Marine and Continental Sedimentation in the Early Cenozoic Kohat Basin and Adjacent Northwestern Indo-Pakistan. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  30. West, R. M. (1980). Middle Eocene large mammal assemblage with Tethyan affinities, Ganda Kas region, Pakistan. J. Paleont. 54:508–533.Google Scholar
  31. Williams, E. M. (1998). Synopsis of the earliest cetaceans: Pakicetidae, Ambulocetidae, Remingtonocetidae, and Protocetidae. In: The Emergence of Whales, Evolutionary Patterns in the Origin of Cetacea, J. G. M. Thewissen, ed., pp. 1–28, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. G. M. Thewissen
    • 1
  • S. T. Hussain
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyNortheastern Ohio Universities College of MedicineRootstown
  2. 2.Department of AnatomyHoward University, College of MedicineWashington

Personalised recommendations