Cellulose

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 263–286 | Cite as

Alkaline hydrogen peroxide bleaching of cellulose

  • Robert E. Brooks
  • Samuel B. Moore
Article

Abstract

A closed system bleaching apparatus was designed to determine the kinetics and effects of various factors on alkaline hydrogen peroxide bleaching of textile cellulose fabrics. It was confirmed that perhydroxyl anion is the primary bleaching moiety in alkaline hydrogen peroxide systems. The use of the apparatus in the measurement of fabric color, waste oxygen, and the subsequent calculation of hydroxyl ion, and molecular hydrogen peroxide confirmed that pH and titration of 'free' hydrogen peroxide in alkaline bleaching systems are not good indicators of bleaching mechanism. The role of the cellulose itself in the chemical bleaching system was determined. The rate of bleaching on cotton fabric was shown to be a first order reaction in concentration of perhydroxyl anion at 60 and 90 °C. An activation energy of 17 kcal/mole was estimated. Decomposition of H2O2 into waste oxygen was found to be second order kinetics.

bleaching cellulose hydrogen peroxide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Taher, A. M. M. and Cates, D. M. (1975) Bleaching cellulose: Part I. A free radical mechanism. Textile Chemist & Colorist 7, 220-224.Google Scholar
  2. Steinmiller, W. G. and Cates, D. M. (1976) Bleaching cellulose: Part II. Effect of impurities. Textile Chemist & Colorist 8, 30-34.Google Scholar
  3. Dannacher, J. and Schlenker, W. (1996) The mechanism of hydrogen peroxide bleaching. Textile Chemist & Colorist 28(11), 24-28.Google Scholar
  4. Duke, F. R. and Haas, T. W. (1961) The homogeneous base-catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. J. Phy. Chem. 65, 304-306.Google Scholar
  5. Spiro, M. and Griffith, W. P. (1997) The mechanism of hydrogen peroxide bleaching. Textile Chemist & Colorist 29(11), 12-13.Google Scholar
  6. Thompson, K. M., Griffith, W. P. and Spiro, M. (1993) (1994) (1999) Mechanism of bleaching by peroxides Part 1, 2, and 3. J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 89, 1203-1209; J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 90, 1105-1114; J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 89, 4035-4043.Google Scholar
  7. Simon, S. A. and Drelich, Arthur (1946) Oxygen balance in peroxide bleaching. Textile Res. J. 16, 609-615.Google Scholar
  8. Milne, N. V. (1998) Oxygen bleaching systems in domestic laundry. J. Surfactants and Detergents 1, 253-261.Google Scholar
  9. Isbell, H. S., Frush, H. L., Naves, P. and Soontracharoen, P. (1981) Degradation of 2-deoxyaldoses. Carbohydrate Res. 90, 111-122.Google Scholar
  10. Galbacs, Z. M. and Gangi, L. V. (1983) Alkali-Induced decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 2353-2357.Google Scholar
  11. Koubek, E., Haggett, M. L., Bathaglia, C. S., Ibne-Rasa, K. M., Pyun, H. Y. and Edwards, O. J. (1963) Kinetics and mechanism of the spontaneous decompositions of some peroxocids, hydrogen peroxide and t-butyl hydroperoxide. J. Chem. Soc. 85, 2263-2268.Google Scholar
  12. Goodman, J. F., Robson, P. and Wilson, E. R. (1962) Decomposition of aromatic peroxyacids in aqueous alkali. Trans. Faraday Soc. 58, 1846-1851.Google Scholar
  13. Evans, M. G. and Uri, N. (1949) The dissociation constant of hydrogen peroxide. Trans. Faraday Soc. 45, 224-230.Google Scholar
  14. Evans, D. F. and Upton, M. W. (1985) The spontaneous and catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 2526-2529.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert E. Brooks
    • 1
  • Samuel B. Moore
    • 1
  1. 1.Burlington Chemical Company, Inc.Burlington

Personalised recommendations