Aquaculture International

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 103–120 | Cite as

Combined effects of temperature and salinity on development and survival of Atlantic halibut larvae

  • Oddvar H. Ottesen
  • Sylvie Bolla


The effects of different combinations of temperature and salinity on development and survival of Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L.), larvae were studied in two experiments. In the period from 57 to 120 d° post hatching, approximately 38% of the larvae died: in both experiments, mortality was significantly related to temperature, but there was no relationship to salinity.

Cumulative, chronic mortality during the yolk-sac stage (until 210 d°) was related to salinity. High mortality was observed in both experiments when high salinity (>34%) was combined with incubation at either high (9 °C) or low (3 °C) temperature. The development of head lesions was significantly related to temperature, and for larvae kept at high salinity, increased mortality may have been a result of salinity stress in the injured larvae.

Abnormal development of the caudal notochord, sometimes resulting in a 90-degree bend of the tail, occurred during incubation of early yolk-sac larvae in high-salinity water. The occurrence of larvae with locked jaws, and larvae with oedema in the yolk-sac sinus and pericardium, was significantly related to temperature. © Rapid Science Ltd. 1998

Abnormal development Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) Marine fish larvae Mortality Salinity Temperature 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bergh, Ø. and Jelmert, A. (1996) Iodophor disinfection of eggs of Atlantic halibut. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 8135-145.Google Scholar
  2. Blaxter, J.H.S., Danielssen, D., Moksness, E. and Øiestad, V. (1983) Description of the early development of the halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and attempts to rear the larvae past first feeding. Marine Biology 799-107.Google Scholar
  3. Bolinches, J. and Egidius, E. (1987) Heterotrophic bacterial communities associated with the rearing of halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) with special reference to Vibriospp. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 3165-173.Google Scholar
  4. Bolla, S. and Holmefjord, I. (1988) Effect of temperature and light on development of Atlantic halibut larvae. Aquaculture 74355-358.Google Scholar
  5. Dethlefsen, V., Westernhagen, H. von and Rosenthal, H. (1975) Cadmium uptake by marine fish larvae. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 27396-407.Google Scholar
  6. Dorson, M. and Torhy, C. (1993) Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus replication in external tissue excised from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss(Walbaum), and hybrids of different susceptibilities. Journal of Fish Diseases 16403-408.Google Scholar
  7. Hansen, G.H., Bergh, Ø., Michaelsen, J. and Knapskog, D. (1992) Flexibacter ovolyticussp. nov., a pathogen of eggs and larvae of Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 42451-458.Google Scholar
  8. Haug, T. (1990) Biology of the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossusL. 1758). Advanced in Marine Biology 261-70.Google Scholar
  9. Haug, T., Kjørsvik, E. and Solemdal, P. (1984) Vertical distribution of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) eggs. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 41798-804.Google Scholar
  10. Hickey, G.M. (1982) Wound healing in fish larvae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 57149-168.Google Scholar
  11. Iida, Y., Masumura, K., Nakai, T., Sorimachi, M. and Matsuda, H. (1989) A viral disease in larvae and juvenile of the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 17-12.Google Scholar
  12. Kinne, O. (1964) The effects of temperature and salinity on marine and brackish water animals. 2. Salinity and temperature combinations. Oceanography and Marine Biology 2281-339.Google Scholar
  13. Lein, I., Holmefjord, I., Refstie, T., Bolla, S., Olsen, Y., Reitan, K.I., Vadstein, O., Øie, G., Harboe, T. and Sorgeloos, P. (1992) Progress in larviculture of Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus. Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit, Ghent 57/4b2099-2110.Google Scholar
  14. Lein, I., Holmefjord, I. and Rye, M. Effects of temperature on yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossusL.), Aquaculture, in press.Google Scholar
  15. Lein, I., Tveite, S., Gjerde, B. and Holmefjord, I. (1997) Effects of salinity on yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossusL.). Aquaculture, 156295-307.Google Scholar
  16. Lønning, S., Kjørsvik, E., Haug, T. and Gulliksen, B. (1982) The early development of the halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossusL.) compared with other marine teleosts. Sarsia 6785-91.Google Scholar
  17. MacArthur, J.I., Fletcher, T.C., Pirie, B.J.S., Davidson, R.J.L. and Thomson, A.W. (1983) Peritoneal inflammatory cells in plaice (Pleuronectes platessaL.): effects of stress and endotoxin. Journal of Fish Biology 2569-81.Google Scholar
  18. May, R.C. (1974) Effects of temperature and salinity on yolk utilization in Bairdiella icistia, Jordan and Gilbert (Pisces: Sciaenidae). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 16213-225.Google Scholar
  19. Morrison, C.M. and MacDonald, C.A. (1995) Normal and abnormal jaw development of the yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 22173-184.Google Scholar
  20. Muroga, K., Higashi, M. and Keitoku, H. (1987) The isolation of intestinal microflora of farmed red seabream (Pagrus major) and black seabream (Acanthophagus schlegeli) at larval and juvenile stages. Aquaculture 6579-88.Google Scholar
  21. Nakai, T., Mori, K., Muroga, K. and Mechuchi, T. (1991) Diagnosis of viral epidermal hyperplasia of Japanese flounder larvae by fluorescent antibody technique. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 571497-1510.Google Scholar
  22. Opstad, I. and Bergh, Ø. (1993) Culture parameters, growth and mortality of halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) yolk-sac larvae in up-welling incubators. Aquaculture 1091-11.Google Scholar
  23. Ottesen, O.H. and Olafsen, J.A. (1997) Ontogenetic development and composition of the mucous cells and the occurrence of saccular cells in the epidermis of Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus(L.). Journal of Fish Biology 50620-633.Google Scholar
  24. Pittman, K., Skiftesvik, A.B. and Harboe, T. (1989) Effect of temperature on growth and organogenesis in larvae of halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossusL.). Rapports et Procèsverbaux des Réunions, Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 191421-430.Google Scholar
  25. Pittman, K., Bergh, Ø., Opstad, I., Skiftesvik, A.B., Skolddal, L. and Strand, H. (1990a) Development of eggs and yolk-sac larvae of halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 6142-160.Google Scholar
  26. Pittman, K., Skiftesvik, A.B. and Berg, L. (1990b) Morphological and behavioural development of halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossusL.) larvae. Journal of Fish Biology 37455-472.Google Scholar
  27. Rosenthal, H. and Alderdice, D.F. (1976) Sublethal effect of environmental stressors, natural and pollutional, on marine fish eggs and larvae. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 332047-2065.Google Scholar
  28. Skiftesvik, A.B. and Bergh, Ø. (1993) Changes in behaviour of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) yolk-sac larvae induced by bacterial infections. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 502552-2557.Google Scholar
  29. Skjermo, J. and Vadstein, O. (1993) The effect of microalgae on skin and bacterial flora of halibut larvae. In: Fish Farming Technology(eds H. Reinertsen, L.A. Dahle, L. Jørgensen and K. Tvinnereim) A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Brooksield, pp. 61-67.Google Scholar
  30. Somasundaram, B., King, P.E. and Shackley, S.E. (1984) Some morphological effects of zinc upon the yolk-sac larvae of Clupea harengusL. Journal of Fish Biology 25333-343.Google Scholar
  31. Speare, D.J. and Mirsalimi, S.M. (1992) Pathology of the mucous coat of trout skin during an erosive bacterial dermatitis: a technical advance in mucous coat stabilization for ultrastructural examination. Journal of Comparative Pathology 106201-211.Google Scholar
  32. Tilseth, S. (1990) New marine fish species for cold-water farming. Aquaculture 85235-245.Google Scholar
  33. Westernhagen, H.V. (1970) Erbrütung der von dorsch (Gadus morhua), flounder (Pleuronectes flesus) und scholle (Pleuronectes platessa) unter kombinierten temperatur-und salzgehaltsbedingungen. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 2121-102.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oddvar H. Ottesen
    • 1
  • Sylvie Bolla
    • 2
  1. 1.Norland Research InstituteBodøNorway
  2. 2.Department of Fishery and SciencesNordland CollegeBodøNorway

Personalised recommendations