Advertisement

Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 437–475 | Cite as

Exploring the Relationship between Calibration and Self-Regulated Learning

  • Nancy J. Stone
Article

Abstract

The calibration and self-regulated learning literatures were reviewed. Calibration is a measure of how accurately individuals assess their confidence in their own knowledge. Self-regulated learning is a process of developing goals, using strategies, and monitoring performance in order to complete tasks. Individual characteristics, self-testing, and feedback are common components of both calibration and self-regulated learning; however, the specific aspects of these components often differ. Different levels of calibration might suggest different applications of self-regulated learning or different phases in task completion or learning. Certain types of self-regulation might impact calibration. These reciprocal effects between calibration and self-regulation are unclear and should be evaluated. Determining whether self-regulated learners can and should become well calibrated also is an important instructional design issue. Suggestions for research are presented.

calibration self-regulated learning student learning instructional design 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Allwood, C. M., and Bjorhag, C. G. (1991). Mood and realism of confidence judgements of one's own answers to general knowledge questions. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 32: 358-371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allwood, C. M. (1994). Confidence in own and others' knowledge. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 35: 198-211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arbuckle, T. Y., and Cuddy, L. L. (1992). Discrimination of item strength at time of presentation. In T. O. Nelson (Ed.) Metacognition: Core readings. Boston, Allyn & Bacon, (Reprinted from (1969) Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81: 126-131), pp. 151-158.Google Scholar
  4. Archer, J. (1994). Achievement goals as a measure of motivation in university students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19: 430-446.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  6. Baranski, J. V., and Petrusic, W. M. (1994). The calibration and resolution of confidence in perceptual judgments. Perception and Psychophysics, 55: 412-428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Biggs, J. B. (1987). Student approaches to learning and studying. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  8. Bjorkman, M. (1992). Knowledge, calibration, and resolution: A linear model. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 51: 1-21.Google Scholar
  9. Bjorkman, M. (1994). Internal cue theory: Calibration and resolution of confidence in general knowledge. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 58: 386-405.Google Scholar
  10. Bouffard, T., Boisvert, J., Vezeau, C., and Larouche, C. (1995). The impact of goal orientation on self-regulation and performance among college students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 65: 317-329.Google Scholar
  11. Butler, D. L., and Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65: 245-281.Google Scholar
  12. Butler, R. (1993). Effects of task-and ego-achievement goals on information seeking during task engagement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65: 18-31.Google Scholar
  13. Cooke, R. M (1991). Experts in Uncertainty: Opinion and Subjective Probability in Science. New York, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Corno, L., and Mandinach, E. B. (1983). The role of cognitive engagement in classroom learning and motivation. Educational Psychologist, 18: 88-108.Google Scholar
  15. Corno, L., Collins, K., and Capper, J. (1982). Where there's a way there's a will: Self-regulating the low-achieving student. ERIC Document ED 222 499.Google Scholar
  16. Craik, F. I. M., and Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: Framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11: 671-684.Google Scholar
  17. Cutler, B. L. and Wolfe, R. N. (1989). Self-monitoring and the association between confidence and accuracy. Journal of Research in Personality, 23: 410-420.Google Scholar
  18. Erev, I., Wallsten, T. S., and Budescu, D. V. (1994). Simultaneous over-and underconfidence: The role of error in judgment processes. Psychological Review, 101: 519-527.Google Scholar
  19. Ferrell, W. R., and McGoey, P. J. (1980). A model of calibration for subjective probabilities. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26: 32-53.Google Scholar
  20. Ferrell, W. R. (1995). A model for realism of confidence judgments: Implications for underconfidence in sensory discrimination. Perception and Psychophysics, 57: 246-254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Finn, J. D., Folger, J., and Cox, D. (1991). Measuring participation among elementary grade students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51: 393-402.Google Scholar
  22. Ganz, M. N., and Ganz, B. C. (1990). Linking metacognition to classroom success. High School Journal, 73: 180-185.Google Scholar
  23. Gigerenzer, G., Hoffrage, U., and Kleinbolting, H. (1991). Probabilistic mental models: A Brunswikian theory of confidence. Psychological Review, 98: 506-528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Glenberg, A. M., and Epstein, W. (1985). Calibration of comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 11: 702-718.Google Scholar
  25. Glenberg, A. M., and Epstein, W. (1987). Inexpert calibration of comprehension. Memory and Cognition, 15: 84-93.Google Scholar
  26. Glenberg, A. M., Sanocki, T., Epstein, W., and Morris, C. (1987). Enhancing calibration of comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2: 119-136.Google Scholar
  27. Glenberg, A. M., Wilkinson, A. C., and Epstein, W. (1992). The illusion of knowing: Failure in the self-assessment of comprehension. In Nelson, T. O. (ed.), Metacognition: Core Readings. Boston, Allyn & Bacon, pp. 185-195. (Reprinted from (1982) Memory and Cognition, 10: 597-602).Google Scholar
  28. Greene, B. A., and Miller, R. B. (1996). Influences on achievement: Goals, perceived ability, and cognitive engagement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21: 181-192.Google Scholar
  29. Hart, J. T. (1992). Memory and the feeling-of-knowing experience. In Nelson, T. O. (ed.), Metacognition: Core Readings. Boston, Allyn & Bacon, pp. 133-141. (Reprinted from (1965) Journal of Educational Psychology, 56: 208-216).Google Scholar
  30. Helstrup, T. (1989). Active and passive memory: States, attitudes, and strategies. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 30: 113-133.Google Scholar
  31. Henderson, R. W. (1986). Self-regulated learning: Implications for the design of instructional media. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11: 405-427.Google Scholar
  32. Hoch, S. J., and Loewenstein, G. F. (1989). Outcome feedback: Hindsight and information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15: 605-619.Google Scholar
  33. Howard-Rose, D., and Winne, P. H. (1993). Measuring component and sets of cognitive processes in self-regulated learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85: 591-604.Google Scholar
  34. Johnson, M. K., and Raye, C. L. (1992). Reality monitoring. In Nelson, T. O. (ed.), Metacognition: Core Readings. Boston, Allyn & Bacon, pp. 215-229. (Reprinted from (1981) Psychology Review, 88: 67-85).Google Scholar
  35. Juslin, P., and Winman, A. (1995). Reply to William R. Ferrell's paper ''Calibration of sensory and cognitive judgments: A single model for both.'' Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 36: 153-163.Google Scholar
  36. Juslin, P. (1993). An explanation of the hard-easy effect in studies of realism of confidence in one's general knowledge. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 5: 55-71.Google Scholar
  37. Juslin, P. (1994). The overconfidence phenomenon as a consequence of informal experimenter-guided selection of almanac items. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 57: 226-246.Google Scholar
  38. Juslin, P., Winman, A., and Persson, T. (1995). Can overconfidence be used as an indicator of reconstructive rather than retrieval processes? Cognition, 54: 99-130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kinzie, M. B. (1990). Requirements and benefits of effective interactive instruction: Learner control, self-regulation, and continuing motivation. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38: 5-21.Google Scholar
  40. Kirby, J. R., and Woodhouse, R. A. (1994). Measuring and predicting depth of processing in learning. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 40: 147-161.Google Scholar
  41. Koriat, A., Lichtenstein, S., and Fischhoff, B. (1992). Reasons for confidence. In Nelson, T. O. (ed.), Metacognition: Core Readings. Boston, Allyn & Bacon, pp. 171-184. (Reprinted from (1980). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6: 107-118).Google Scholar
  42. Leonesio, R. J., and Nelson, T. O. (1992). Do different metamemory judgments tap the same underlying aspects of memory? In Nelson, T. O. (ed.), Metacognition: Core Readings. Boston, Allyn & Bacon, pp. 159-170. (Reprinted from (1990). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16: 464-470).Google Scholar
  43. Liberman, V., and Tversky, A. (1993). On the evaluation of probability judgments: Calibration, resolution, and monotonicity. Psychological Bulletin, 114: 162-173.Google Scholar
  44. Lichtenstein, S., and Fischhoff, B. (1977). Do those who know more also know more about how much they know? Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 20: 159-183.Google Scholar
  45. Lichtenstein, S., and Fischhoff, B. (1980). Training for calibration. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26: 149-171.Google Scholar
  46. Lichtenstein, S., Fischhoff, B., and Phillips, L. D. (1982). Calibration of probabilities: The state of the art to 1980. In Kahneman, D., Slovic, P., and Tversky, A. (eds.), Judgments under Certainty: Heuristics and Biases, New York, Cambridge University Press, pp. 306-334.Google Scholar
  47. Maki, R. H., Foley, J. M., Kajer, W. K., Thompson, R. C., and Willert, M. G. (1990). Increased processing enhances calibration of comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16: 609-616.Google Scholar
  48. Martin, M. (1983). Cognitive failure: Everyday and laboratory performance. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 21: 97-100.Google Scholar
  49. McCombs, B. L., and Marzano, R. J. (1990). Putting the self in self-regulated learning: The self as agent in integrating will and skill. Educational Psychologist, 25: 51-69.Google Scholar
  50. McCombs, B. L., and Whisler, J. S. (1989). The role of affective variables in autonomous learning. Educational Psychologist, 24: 277-306.Google Scholar
  51. McMillan, J. H., Simonetta, L. G., and Singh, J. (1994). Student opinion survey: Development of measures of student motivation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54: 496-505.Google Scholar
  52. Meece, J. L. (1994). The role of motivation in self-regulated learning. In Schunk, D. H., and Zimmerman, B. J. (eds.), Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance: Issues and Educational Applications. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 25-44.Google Scholar
  53. Metcalfe, J. (1992). Dynamic metacognitive monitoring during problem solving. In Nelson, T. O. (ed.), Metacognition: Core Readings. Boston, Allyn & Bacon, pp. 196-214. (Reprinted from (1986), Premonition of insight predict impending error. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12: 623-634).Google Scholar
  54. Miller, R. B., Behrens, J. T., Greene, B. A., and Newman, D. (1993). Goals and perceived ability: Impact on student valuing, self-regulating, and persistence. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18: 2-14.Google Scholar
  55. Morris, C. C. (1990). Retrieval processes underlying confidence in comprehension judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16: 223-232.Google Scholar
  56. Nelson, T. O. (1996). Consciousness and metacognition. American Psychologist, 51: 102-116.Google Scholar
  57. Nelson, T. O., Gerler, D., and Narens, L. (1992). Accuracy of feeling of knowing judgments for predicting perceptual identification and relearning. In Nelson, T. O. (ed.), Metacognition: Core Readings. Boston, Allyn & Bacon, pp.142-140. (Reprinted from (1984) Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113: 282-300).Google Scholar
  58. Newman, R. S., and Wick, P. L. (1987). Effect of age, skill, and performance feedback on children's judgments of confidence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79: 115-119.Google Scholar
  59. Ornstein, A. C. (1994-95). Motivation and learning. High School Journal, 78: 105-110.Google Scholar
  60. Palmer, D. J., and Goetz, E. T. (1988). Selection and use of study strategies: The role of the studier's beliefs about self and strategies. In Weinstein, C. E., Goetz, E. T., and Alexander, P. A. (eds.), Learning and Study Strategies: Issues in Assessment, Instruction, and Evaluation. San Diego, Academic Press, pp. 41-61.Google Scholar
  61. Pfeifer, P. E. (1994). Are we overconfident in the belief that probability forecasters are overconfident? Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 58: 203-213.Google Scholar
  62. Pintrich, P. R., and de Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82: 33-40.Google Scholar
  63. Pintrich, P. R., and Garcia, T. (1993). Intraindividual differences in students' motivation and self-regulated learning. German Journal of Educational Psychology, 7: 99-107.Google Scholar
  64. Pintrich, P. R., and Schrauben, B. (1992). Students' motivational beliefs and their cognitive engagement in classroom academic tasks. In Schunk, D. H., and Meece, J. L. (eds.), Student Perceptions in the Classroom. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 149-183.Google Scholar
  65. Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., and McKeachie, W. J. (1993). Reliability and predictive validity of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53: 801-813.Google Scholar
  66. Reed, J. H., and Schallert, D. L. (1993). The nature of involvement in academic discourse tasks. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85: 253-266.Google Scholar
  67. Ridley, D. S., Schutz, P. A., Glanz, R. S., and Weinstein, C. E. (1992). Self-regulated learning: The interactive influence of metacognitive awareness and goal-setting. Journal of Experimental Education, 60: 293-306.Google Scholar
  68. Schraw, G., Potenza, M. T., and Nebelsick-Gullet, L. (1993). Constraints on the calibration of performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18: 455-463.Google Scholar
  69. Schunk, D. H., and Zimmerman, B. J. (eds.) (1994a). Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance: Issues and Educational Applications (preface). Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  70. Schunk, D. H., and Zimmerman, B. J. (1994b). Self-regulation in education: Retrospect and prospect. In Schunk, D. H., and Zimmerman, B. J. (eds.), Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance: Issues and Educational Applications. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 305-314.Google Scholar
  71. Schunk, D. H. (1989). Self-efficacy and achievement behaviors. Educational Psychology Review, 1: 173-208.Google Scholar
  72. Schunk, D. H. (1990). Goal setting and self-efficacy during self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 25: 71-86.Google Scholar
  73. Schunk, D. H. (1992). Theory and research on student perceptions in the classroom. In Schunk, D. H., and Meece, J. L. (eds.), Student Perceptions in the Classroom. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  74. Schunk, D. H. (1994). Self-regulation of self-efficacy and attributions in academic settings. In Schunk, D. H., and Zimmerman, B. J. (eds.), Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance: Issues and Educational Applications. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 75-99.Google Scholar
  75. Sharp, G. L., Cutler, B. L., and Penrod, S. D. (1988). Performance feedback improves the resolution of confidence judgments. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 42: 271-2783.Google Scholar
  76. Skinner, E. A., and Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85: 571-581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Skinner, E. A., Wellborn, J. G., and Connell, J. P. (1990). What it takes to do well in school and whether I've got it: A process model of perceived control and children's engagement and achievement in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82: 22-32.Google Scholar
  78. Soll, J. B. (1996). Determinants of overconfidence and miscalibration: The roles of random error and ecological structure. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 65: 117-137.Google Scholar
  79. Sturmey, P., and Crisp, A. G. (1994). Group engagement: A conceptual analysis. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 38: 455-468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Thomas, J. W., and Rohwer, W. D., Jr. (1993). Proficient autonomous learning: Problems and prospects. In Rabinowitz, M. (ed.), Cognitive Science Foundations of Instruction. Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum, pp. 1-32.Google Scholar
  81. Thomas, J. W., Bol, L., Warkentin, R. W., Wilson, M., Strage, A., and Rohwer, W. D. Jr. (1993). Interrelationships among students' study activities, self-concept of academic ability, and achievement as a function of characteristics of high-school biology courses. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 7: 499-532.Google Scholar
  82. Tobias, S. (1989). Another look at research on the adaptation of instruction to student characteristics. Educational Psychologist, 24: 213-227.Google Scholar
  83. Trafimow, D., and Sniezek, J. A. (1994). Perceived expertise and its effect on confidence. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 57: 290-302.Google Scholar
  84. VanderStoep, S. W., Pintrich, P. R., and Fagerlin, A. (1996). Disciplinary differences in self-regulated learning in college students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21: 345-362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Wagenaar, W. A. (1988). Calibration and the effects of knowledge and reconstruction in retrieval from memory. Cognition, 28: 277-296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Walczyk, J. J., and Hall, V. C. (1989). Effects of examples and embedded questions on the accuracy of comprehension self-assessments. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81: 435-437.Google Scholar
  87. Weaver, C. A. III. (1990). Constraining factors in calibration of comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16: 214-222.Google Scholar
  88. Weinstein, C. E., Palmer, D. R., and Schulte, A. C. (1987). Learning and Study Strategies Inventory. Clearwater, FL, H & H Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  89. Weinstein, C. E., Zimmerman, S. A., and Palmer, D. R. (1988). Assessing learning strategies: The design and development of the LASSI. In Weinstein, C. E., Goetz, E. T., and Alexander, P. A. (eds.), Learning and Study Strategies: Issues in Assessment, Instruction, and Evaluation. San Diego, Academic Press, pp. 25-40.Google Scholar
  90. Wilhite, S. C. (1990). Self-efficacy, locus of control, self-assessment of memory ability, and study activities as predictors of college course achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82: 696-700.Google Scholar
  91. Winman, A., and Juslin, P. (1993). Calibration of sensory and cognitive judgments: Two different accounts. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 34: 135-148.Google Scholar
  92. Winne, P. H. (1995). Self-regulation is ubiquitous but its forms vary with knowledge. Educational Psychologist, 30: 223-228.Google Scholar
  93. Winne, P. H. (1996). A metacognitive view of individual differences in self-regulated learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 8: 327-353.Google Scholar
  94. Winne, P. H. (1997). Experimenting to bootstrap self-regulated learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89: 397-410.Google Scholar
  95. Zimmerman, B. J., and Martinez-Pons, M. (1986). Development of a structured interview for assessing student use of self-regulated learning strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 23: 614-628.Google Scholar
  96. Zimmerman, B. J., and Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Perceptions of efficacy and strategy use in the self-regulation of learning. In Schunk, D. H., and Meece, J. L. (eds.), Student Perceptions in the Classroom. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp.185-207.Google Scholar
  97. Zimmerman, B. J. (1986). Becoming a self-regulated learner: Which are the key subprocesses? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11: 307-313.Google Scholar
  98. Zimmerman, B. J. (1990a). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychology, 25: 3-17.Google Scholar
  99. Zimmerman, B. J. (1990b). Self-regulating academic learning and achievement: The emergence of a social cognitive perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 2: 173-201.Google Scholar
  100. Zimmerman, B. J. (1994). Dimensions of academic self-regulation: A conceptual framework for education. In Schunk, D. H., and Zimmerman, B. J. (eds.), Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance: Issues and Educational Applications. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 3-21.Google Scholar
  101. Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., and Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Self-motivation for academic attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting. American Educational Research Journal, 29: 663-676.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nancy J. Stone
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyCreighton UniversityOmaha

Personalised recommendations