Previous lung disease and lung cancer risk among women (United States)
Objective:The association between previous lung diseases (PLD) and lung cancer risk has not been studied extensively. We conducted a registry-based case–control study to examine the relation between previous lung diseases and lung cancer among women in Missouri.
Methods:Incident cases (n = 676) were identified through the Missouri Cancer Registry for the period 1 January 1993 to 31 January 1994. Controls (n = 700) were selected through drivers' license files and Medicare files.
Results:Whether analyzing all respondents or in-person interviews only, elevated effect estimates were noted for several types of PLD. Elevated relative risk estimates were shown for chronic bronchitis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2–2.3), emphysema (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.8–4.2), pneumonia (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2–2.0), and for all PLDs combined (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2–1.9). Analysis of only direct interviews did not show a substantial or consistent pattern of change in relative risk estimates. Because PLDs identified close to the time of cancer diagnosis could conceivably be misdiagnosed, resulting from early lung cancer symptoms, we evaluated the effects on risk estimates of a “latency exclusion” of up to threeyears. When these exclusions were taken into account, ORs remained statistically significantly elevated only for emphysema.
Conclusion:When earlier epidemiologic findings and underlying biological and genetic factors are taken into account, an association between PLD and lung cancer is plausible.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Ernster VL (1996) Female lung cancer. Annu Rev Public Health 17: 97–114.Google Scholar
- 2.US Dept of Health and Human Services (1989) Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking-25 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office on Smoking and Health, US Department of Health and Human Services publication 89–8411.Google Scholar
- 3.Brownson RC, Alavanja MCR, Caporaso N, Simoes EJ, Chang JC (1998) Epidemiology and prevention of lung cancer in nonsmokers. Epidemiol Rev 20: 218–236.Google Scholar
- 4.Gao Y, Blot WJ, Zheng W, et al. (1987) Lung cancer among Chinese women. Int J Cancer 40: 604–609.Google Scholar
- 5.Wu-Williams AH, Dai XD, Blot W, et al. (1990) Lung cancer among women in north-east China. Br J Cancer 62: 982–987.Google Scholar
- 6.Ger L-P, Hsu W-L, Chen K-T, Chen C-J (1993) Risk factors of lung cancer by histological category in Taiwan. Anticancer Res 13: 1491–1500.Google Scholar
- 7.Alavanja MCR, Brownson RC, Boice JD Jr, Hoch E (1992) Preexisting lung disease and lung cancer among non-smoking women. Am J Epidemiol 136: 623–632.Google Scholar
- 8.Wu AH, Fontham ETH, Reynolds P, et al. (1995) Previous lung disease and risk of lung cancer among lifetime nonsmoking women in the United States. Am J Epidemiol 141: 1023–1032.Google Scholar
- 9.Ko Y-C, Lee C-H, Chen M-J, et al. (1997) Risk factors for primary lung cancer among non-smoking women in Taiwan. Int J Epidemiol 26: 24–31.Google Scholar
- 10.Mayne ST, Buenconsejo J, Janerich DT (1999) Previous lung disease and risk of lung cancer among men and women nonsmok-ers. Am J Epidemiol 149: 13–20.Google Scholar
- 11.Biesalski HK, de Mesquita BB, Chesson A, et al. (1997) Consensus statement on lung cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 6: 316–322.Google Scholar
- 12.Brownson RC, Davis JR, Chang JC, DiLorenzo TM, Keefe TJ, Bagby JR Jr (1989) A study of the accuracy of cancer risk factor information reported to a central registry compared with that obtained by interview. Am J Epidemiol 129: 616–624.Google Scholar
- 13.World Health Organization (1982) The World Health Organization Histologic Typing of Lung Tumors, 2nd edn. Am J Clin Pathol 77: 123–136.Google Scholar
- 14.Koss LG (1979) Diagnostic Cytology and its Histopathologic Bases, 3rd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.Google Scholar
- 15.Martin G, Alavanja MCR, Zahm SH. Department of Health and Human Services Epidemiology Research (1989) Data Users Conference Proceedings. LBaltimore, MD: Health Care Finance Administration; HCFA publication no 03293, 181–186.Google Scholar
- 16.Alavanja MCR, Brownson RC, Berger E, Lubin J, Modigh C (1996) Avian exposure and the risk of lung cancer in Missouri (USA). Br J Med 313: 1233–1235.Google Scholar
- 17.Alavanja MCR, Lubin JH, Mahaffey JA, Brownson RC (1999) Residential radon exposure and risk of lung cancer in Missouri. Am J Public Health 89: 1042–1048.Google Scholar
- 18.Swanson CA, Brown CC, Sinha R, Kulldor. M, Brownson RC, Alavanja MC (1997) Dietary fats and lung cancer risk among women: the Missouri Women's Health Study. Cancer Causes Control 8: 883–893.Google Scholar
- 19.Weinberg C, Wacholder S (1990) The design and analysis of case-control studies with biased sampling. Biometrics 46: 963–975.Google Scholar
- 20.Breslow NE, Day NE (1980) Statistical Methods in Cancer Research, vol. 1: The Analysis of Case-Control Studies. LLyon: International Agency of Research on Cancer, IARC publication 32.Google Scholar
- 21.Greenland S (1989) Model and variable selection in epidemiologic analysis. Am J Public Health 79: 340–349.Google Scholar
- 22.Tockman MS, Anthonisen NR, Wright EC, et al. (1987) Airways obstruction and the risk for lung cancer. Ann Intern Med 106: 512–518.Google Scholar
- 23.McFadden ER Jr, Gilbert IA (1992) Asthma. N Engl J Med 327: 1928–1937.Google Scholar
- 24.Kueppers F, Pallat R, Larson RJ (1969) Obstructive lung disease and a1–antitrypsin deficiency gene heterozygosity. Science 165: 899–901.Google Scholar
- 25.Cooper DM, Hoeppner VH, Cox DW, Zamel N, Bryan AC, Levinson H (1974) Lung function in a1–antitrypsin heterozygotes (Pi type MZ). Annu Rev Respir Dis 110: 708–715.Google Scholar
- 26.Yang P, Wentziaff KA, Katzmann JA, et al. (1999) Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency allele carriers among lung cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomakers Prev 8: 461–465.Google Scholar
- 27.Laurila AL, Anitila T, Läärä E, et al. (1997) Serological evidence of an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and lung cancer. Int J Cancer 74: 31–34.Google Scholar
- 28.Hahn DL, Dodge RW, Golubiatnikov R (1991) Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae (strain TWAR) infection with wheezing, asthmatic bronchitis, and adult-onset asthma. JAMA 266: 225–230.Google Scholar
- 29.Von Hertzen L, Leinonen M, Surcel H-M, Karulamen J, Saikku P (1995) Measurement of sputum antibodies in the diagnosis of acute and chronic respiratory infections associated with C. pneumoniae. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2: 454–457.Google Scholar
- 30.Karvonen M, Tuomilehto J, Pitkaniemi J, Naukkarinen A, Saikku P (1994) The importance of smoking for antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity. Int J Epidemiol 24: 1315–1321.Google Scholar
- 31.Ohshima H, Bartsch H (1994) Chronic infection and inflammatory processes as cancer risk factors: possible role of nitric oxide in carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 305: 253–264.Google Scholar