Comparison of CdS thin films prepared by different techniques for applications in solar cells as window materials
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CdS thin films as window materials for solar cells have been prepared by three procedures; chemical bath deposition, electrodeposition in an aqueous medium at 80 °C and electrodeposition in a non-aqueous medium at 170 °C. As deposited films along with those obtained after annealing in air at 400 °C for 15 min were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical absorption spectra and photoelectrochemical spectroscopy (PEC) techniques under identical experimental conditions. X-ray diffraction data indicate the formation of hexagonal CdS as the predominent phase, but the SEM studies show that their textures are widely dependent on the conditions employed. GDOES profiling indicates the incorporation of Na and Si into CdS films prepared by all three techniques. Annealing of chemical bath deposited films causes a red shift of the absorbance edge and also a shift in the maxima of the photocurrent action spectra towards the low energy side. However, this effect was comparatively negligible for the samples prepared by the other two techniques. PEC studies indicate that CdS materials grown by all three techniques are all n-type. All studies indicate that the films grown at 170 °C using non-aqueous solutions are of better crystallinity and of improved electrical properties. © 1998 Kluwer Academic Publishers
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