Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 9, Issue 11, pp 1571–1585 | Cite as

Subsistence hunting and bushmeat exploitation in central-western Tanzania

  • G.M. Carpaneto
  • A. Fusari
Article

Abstract

An ethnozoological research was carried out in the Tabora District (central-western Tanzania) from December '95 to February '96, to gather information on the sustainable exploitation of wildlife there and to outline the zoological culture of the native people (the Banyamwezi). The objective was to describe the hunting activity and the techniques employed in capturing wild mammals and to gather quantitative data on game harvest. An inventory of the mammal species living in the study area was conducted by three different methods: (1) direct field observation of animals and their tracks; (2) identification of animals captured by the villagers; (3) interviews with the hunters. The activities of 10 local hunters from seven villages were followed during a nine week period. The number of mammals killed and the techniques used for each species were recorded. Other data were collected through interviews of the villagers and concerned (1) the use of every species as food or for other purposes; (2) the species considered as pests; (3) the best places and time for hunting the different species; (4) the time spent hunting them; (5) the food restrictions and taboos; (6) the extent of the bushmeat market (quantity, price, etc.). A total of 236 animals belonging to 37 species were killed during the study period with the following breakdown into taxonomic groups: Bovidae (44.06%), Carnivora (22.88%), Lagomorpha (8.05%), Rodentia (7.2%), diurnal Primates (5.93%), Insectivora (4.23%), Hyracoidea (0.84%), nocturnal Primates (0.84%), Hippopotamidae (0.42%) and Pholidota (0.42%). Four different techniques were used by local hunters in the study area: guns (53.81%), traps (19.06%), spears (11.01%) and dogs (16.01%). Poaching is rampant because of the scarcity of ranger staff and vehicles for patrolling.

Banyamwezi mammals subsistence hunting Tanzania 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrahams RG (1981) The Nyamwezi Today. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvard MS, Robinson JG, Redford KH and Kaplans H (1997) The sustainability of subsistence hunting in the tropics. Conservation Biology 11: 977–982Google Scholar
  3. Anadu PA, Elamah PO and Oates JF (1988) The bushmeat trade in southwestern Nigeria: a case study. Human Ecology 16: 199–208Google Scholar
  4. Bellamy R (1993) Ethnobiology in Tropical Forests. Royal Geographical Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Bösch F (1930) Les Banyamwezi. Peuple de l'Afrique Orientale. International Sammlung Ethnologischer Monographien, MünsterGoogle Scholar
  6. Burt BD (1942) Some East African vegetation communities. Journal of Ecology 30: 67–146Google Scholar
  7. Carpaneto GM (1994) Parc National d'Odzala: Ethnozoologie, Faune et Ecotourisme. Rapport Final. Republique du Congo – Ministère des Eaux et Forêts, AGRECO/CTFT-Bruxelles, 80 pp, 18 annexes, 26 platesGoogle Scholar
  8. Carpaneto GM and Germi F (1989a) The mammals in the zoological culture of the Mbuti pygmies in north-eastern Zaire.Hystrix (n.s.) 1: 1–83Google Scholar
  9. Carpaneto GM and Germi F (1989b) Mustelidae and Viverridae from north-eastern Zaire: ethnozoological research and conservation. Mustelid and Viverrid Conservation (IUCN/SSC Newsletter) 1: 2–4Google Scholar
  10. Carpaneto GM and Germi F (1990) Traditional hunting and agriculture in north-eastern Zaire and southwestern Uganda. International Symposium of Agroecology and Conservation issues in Temperate and Tropical regions, Padoa (26–29 September 1990), p 33Google Scholar
  11. Carpaneto GM and Germi F (1992)Diversity of mammals and traditional hunting in central African rain forests. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 40: 335–354Google Scholar
  12. Colell M, Maté C and Fa JE (1994) Hunting among Moka Bubis in Bioko: Dynamics of faunal exploitation at the village level. Biodiversity and Conservation 3: 939–950Google Scholar
  13. Cooper JE (1995) Wildlife species for sustainable food production. Biodiversity and Conservation 4: 215–219Google Scholar
  14. Cornevin R (1962) Histoire des Peuples de l'Afrique Noire. Berger-Levrault, ParisGoogle Scholar
  15. Davidson B (1967) The Growth of African Civilisation of East and Central Africa to the Late Nineteenth Century. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Edroma EL (1973) Poaching and human pressure in Rwenzori National Park. Uganda Journal 37: 9–18Google Scholar
  17. Eltringham SK (1979) The Ecology and Conservation of Large African Mammals. The Macmillan Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Fa EJ, Juste J, Del Val JP and Castroviejo J (1995) Impact of market hunting on mammal species in Equatorial Guinea. Conservation Biology 9: 1107–1115Google Scholar
  19. FitzGibbon CD, Mogaka H and Fanshawe JH (1995) Subsistence hunting in Arabuko-Sokoke forest, Kenya, and its effects on mammal populations. Conservation Biology 9: 1116–1126Google Scholar
  20. Giorgetti A and Duranti E (1988) Rese in carcassa e in tagli commerciali degli ungulati selvatici e loro variabilità in funzione delle metodologie di macellazione e di sezionatura. Atti X Convegno Umbriacarni, pp 23–28Google Scholar
  21. Hirji KN (1989) A survey of wildlife populations in Tanzania and their potential for research. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 61: 253–265Google Scholar
  22. Honacki JH, Kinman KE, Koeppl JW (eds.) (1982) Mammal Species of the World. Allen Press and The Association of Systematics Collections, KansasGoogle Scholar
  23. Infield M (1988) Hunting, trapping and fishing in villages within and on the periphery of The Korup National Park. Paper No. 6 of The Korup National Park Socio-Economic Survey: Prepared by theWorld Wide Fund for Nature: Publication 3206/A9.6Google Scholar
  24. Kayanja FAJ (1984) Conservation of African mammals in the aftermath of commercial poaching. Acta Zoologica fennica 172: 195–196Google Scholar
  25. Kingdon J (1971–1976) East African Mammals. An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Kock RA (1995)Wildlife utilization: use it or lose it – a Kenyan perspective. Biodiversity and Conservation 4: 241–256Google Scholar
  27. Marks SA (1973) Prey selection and annual harvest of game in a rural Zambian community. East African Wildlife Journal 11: 113–128Google Scholar
  28. Marks SA (1994) Local hunters and wildlife surveys: a design to enhance participation. African Journal of Ecology 32: 233–254Google Scholar
  29. Mittermeier RA (1987) Effects of Hunting on Rain Forest Primates. In: Marsh CW and Mittermeier RA (eds) Primate Conservation in the Tropical Rain Forest, pp. 109–146. Alan R. Liss Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Payne WJA (1990) An Introduction to Animal Husbandry in the Tropics. Longman Scientific and Technical, London and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Phillips J (1930) Some important vegetation communities in the Central Province of Tanganyika territory (formerly German East Africa). Journal of Ecology 28: 13–234Google Scholar
  32. Rodgers WA and Swai I (1986) Antelopes Global Survey and Regional Action Plans. Part 1: Eastern and Northeast Africa. Chapter 9: Tanzania. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  33. Solon L, Barraclough G and Krishna BG (1996) Deforestation in Tanzania beyond simplistic generalizations. The Ecologist26: 104–109Google Scholar
  34. Talbot L, Payne WJA, Ledger HP, Verdcourt LD and Talbot MH (1965) The Meat Production Potential of Wild Animals in Africa. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Bucks., UKGoogle Scholar
  35. White F (1983) The vegetation of Africa. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  36. Wilkie DS, Sidle JG and Boundzanga GC (1992) Mechanized logging, market hunting and a bank loan in Congo. Tauraco Research Report 4: 279–289Google Scholar
  37. Wilson DE and Reeder DAM (1993) Mammal Species of the World. Smithsonian Institute Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • G.M. Carpaneto
    • 1
  • A. Fusari
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di BiologiaUniversità “Roma Tre”RomeItaly

Personalised recommendations