Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 311–322 | Cite as

Plant endemism in two forests in southern Bahia, Brazil

  • WM. WAYT THOMAS
  • ANDRE´ M. V. DE CARVALHO
  • ANDRE´ M. A. AMORIM
  • JUDITH GARRISON
  • ALBA L. ARBELA´EZ
Article

Abstract

An important factor in determining species rarity is the geographic distribution of species. Estimates were made of the level of endemism of the flora of two sites in the southern Bahian wet forest zone. Estimates were made for endemism in the Atlantic forest biome and for the much more restricted area of southern Bahia and northern Espi´rito Santo and are derived from analyses of the distributions of the species known from each area. The species checklist for each area is based on identified specimens resulting from intensive collecting in a forest near Serra Grande (40km north of Ilhe´us) and the Una Biological Reserve (40km south of Ilhe´us). Slightly less than half of the species (45.2% at Una and 47.7% at Serra Grande) have widespread distributions and 7.4% at each site are disjunct between the coastal forests and Amazonia. In the Una Reserve, 44.1% of the species are endemic to the coastal forest and 28.1% endemic to southern Bahia and northern Espi´rito Santo. At Serra Grande, 41.6% of the species are endemic to the coastal forest and 26.5% endemic to southern Bahia and northern Espi´rito Santo.

Atlantic coastal forest Bahia, Brazil endemism flora 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrade-Lima, D. (1981) Present-day forest refuges in north-eastern Brazil. In Biological Diversification in the Tropics (G.T. Prance, ed.) pp. 245–51. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bibby, C.J., Collar, N.J., Crosby, M.J., Heath, M.F., Imboden, C., Johnson, T.H., Long, A.J., Stattersfield, A.J. and Thirgood, S.J. (1992) Putting Biodiversity on the Map: Priority Areas for Global Conservation. Cambridge, UK: International Council for Bird Conservation.Google Scholar
  3. Biodiversity Support Program, Conservation International, The Nature Conservancy, Wildlife Conservation Society, World Resources Institute and World Wildlife Fund (1995) A Regional Analysis of Geographic Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, DC: Biodiversity Support Program.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, K.S. (1982) Paleoecology and regional patterns of evolution in neotropical forest butterflies. In Biological Diversification in the Tropics (G.T. Prance, ed.) pp. 255–308. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, K.S. (1987a) Biogeography and evolution of neotropical butterflies. In Biogeography and Quaternary History in Tropical America (T.C. Whitmore and G.T. Prance, eds) pp. 66–104. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, K.S. (1987b) Conclusions, synthesis, and alternative hypotheses. In Biogeography and Quaternary History in Tropical America (T.C. Whitmore and G.T. Prance, eds) pp. 175–96. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  7. Buckley, P.A, Foster, M.S, Morton, E.S., Ridgely, R.S. and Buckley, F.G. (eds) (1985) Neotropical Ornithology. Ornithological Monographs 36, 1–1041.Google Scholar
  8. Campos, G. de (1912) Mappa Florestal. Rio de Janeiro: Serviço Geológico e Mineralógico do Brasil. [Facsimile edition published by the Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente, São Paulo, 1987.]Google Scholar
  9. Carvalho Filho, R., de Melo, A.A.O., de Santana, S.O. and Leão, A.C. (1987) Solos do Município de Ilhéus. Boletim Técnico 147. Ilhé us, Bahia, Brazil: Comissão Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira.Google Scholar
  10. Coimbra-Filho, A.F. and Câmara, I. de Gusmão (1996) Os Limites Originais do Bioma Mata Atlântica na Região Nordeste do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Fundação Brasileira para Conservação da Natureza.Google Scholar
  11. Cracraft, J. (1985) Historical biogeography and patterns of differentiation within the South American avifauna: Areas of endemism. In Neotropical Ornithology (P.A. Buckley, M.S. Foster, E.S. Morton, R.S. Ridgely and F.G. Buckley, eds) pp. 49-84. Ornithological Monographs 36, 1–1041.Google Scholar
  12. Dodson, C., Gentry, A.H. and Valverde, F.M. (1985) Flora of Jauneche. Los Rios, Ecuador. Selbyana 8, 1–512.Google Scholar
  13. Duellman, W.E. (ed.) (1979) The South American Herpetofauna: Its Origin, Evolution, and Dispersal. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Monogr. 7.Google Scholar
  14. Gentry, A.H. (1982) Phytogeographic patterns in northwest South America and southern Central America as evidence for a Choco Refugium. In Biological Diversification in the Tropics (G.T. Prance, ed.) pp. 112–36. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Gentry, A.H. (1986) Endemism in Tropical versus Temperate Plant Communities. In Conservation Biology, the Science of Scarcity and Diversity (M.E. Soulé, ed.) pp. 153–81. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  16. Goerck, J.M. (1997) Patterns of rarity and diversity in the birds of the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 11, 112–18.Google Scholar
  17. Gouvêa, J.B.S., Mattos Silva, L.A. and Hori, M. (1976) 1. Fitogeografia. In Diagnostico socioeconômico da região cacaueira, Vol. 7, Recursos florestais, pp. 1–7. Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil: Comissão Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira and the Instituto Interamericano de Ciências Agricolas-OEA.Google Scholar
  18. Guedes-Bruni, R.R. and Morim de Lima, M.P. (1994) Abordagem geográfica, fitofisionômica, florística e taxonômica da Reserva Ecológica de Macaé de Cima. In Reserva Ecológica de Macaé de Cima, Nova Friburgo-RJ: Aspectos Florísticos das Espécies Vasculares (R.R. Guedes-Bruni and M.P. Morim de Lima, organizers) pp. 17–54. Rio de Janeiro: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  19. Guedes-Bruni, R.R., Morim de Lime, M.P., Andreata, R.P., da Silva Sylvestre, L., Pessoa, S. de V.A. and de Lima, H.C. (1994) Endemismo em espécies da floresta Atlântica Brasileira com enfoque especial no Rio de Janeiro. Libro de Resúmenes Sesiones Técnicas, VI Congreso Latinoamericano de Botánica, 2-8 October, 1994. Mar del Plata, Argentina.Google Scholar
  20. Haffer, J. (1987) Biogeography of neotropical birds. In Biogeography and Quaternary History in Tropical America (T.C. Whitmore and G.T. Prance, eds) pp. 105–50. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  21. Köppen, W. (1936) Das geographische System der Klimate. In Handbuch der Klimatologie (W. Köppen and W. Geiger, eds) vol. I, Tiel C, Chapter 3. Berlin: G. Bornträger.Google Scholar
  22. Lewis, G.P. (1987) Legumes of Bahia. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.Google Scholar
  23. Lynch, J.D. (1979) The amphibians of the lowland tropical forests. The South American Herpetofauna: Its Origin, Evolution, and Dispersal (W.E. Duellman, ed.) pp. 189–215. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Monogr. 7.Google Scholar
  24. Melo, A.A.O. (1985) Levantamento dos solos do município de Uruçuca. Boletim Técnico 129. Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil: Comissão Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira.Google Scholar
  25. Mendonça, J.R., Carvalho, A.M. de, Mattos Silva, L.A. and Thomas, W.W. (1993) 45 Anos de Desmatamento no Sul da Bahia, Remanescentes da Mata Atlântica-1945, 1960, 1974, 1990. Ilhé us, Bahia, Brazil: Projeto Mata Atlântica Nordeste, CEPEC.Google Scholar
  26. Mori, S.A. (1989) Eastern, Extra-Amazonian Brazil. In Floristic Inventory of Tropical Countries: The Status of Plant Systematics, Collections, and Vegetation, plus Recommendations for the Future (D.G. Campbell and H.D. Hammond, eds) pp. 427–54. New York: The New York Botanical Garden.Google Scholar
  27. Mori, S.A., Boom, B.M. and Prance, G.T. (1981) Distribution patterns and conservation of eastern Brazilian coastal forest tree species. Brittonia 33, 233–45.Google Scholar
  28. Mori, S.A., Lisboa, G. and Kallunki, J.A. (1982) Fenologia de uma mata higrófila sul-baiana. Revista Theobroma 12, 217–30.Google Scholar
  29. Prance, G.T. (1973) Phytogeographic support for the theory of Pleistocene forest refuges in the Amazon basin, based on evidence from distribution patterns in Caryocaraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Dichapetalaceae and Lecythidaceae. Acta Amazonica 3, 5–28.Google Scholar
  30. Prance, G.T. (1982) Forest refuges: Evidence from woody angiosperms. In Biological Diversification in the Tropics (G.T. Prance, ed.) pp. 137–57. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Prance, G.T. (1987) Biogeography of neotropical plants. In Biogeography and Quaternary History in Tropical America (T.C. Whitmore and G.T. Prance, eds) pp. 46–65. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  32. Rabinowitz, D., Cairns, S. and Dillon, T. (1986) Seven forms of rarity and their frequency in the flora of the British Isles. In Conservation Biology: the Science of Scarcity and Diversity (M. Soulé, ed.) pp. 182–204. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
  33. Rocha Filho, C.A. (1976) Diagnostico socioeconômico da região cacaueira, Vol. 5, Recursos hídricos. Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil: Comissão Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira and the Instituto Interamericano de Ciências Agricolas-OEA.Google Scholar
  34. Roeder, M. (1975) Diagnostico socioeconômico da região cacaueira, Vol. 4. Reconhecimento climatolôgico. Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil: Comissão Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira and the Instituto Interamericano de Ciências Agricolas-OEA.Google Scholar
  35. SOS Mata Atlântica (1992) Dossiê Mata Atlântica. São Paulo: Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica.Google Scholar
  36. Thomas, W.W. and Carvalho, A.M. de (1993) Estudo Fitossociologico de Serra Grande, Uruçuca, Bahia, Brasil. Resumos, vol. 1: 224. XLIV Congresso Nacional de Botânica. 24-30 January, 1993, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís, MA, Brazil.Google Scholar
  37. Thomas, W.W. and Carvalho, A.M. de (1997) Atlantic moist forest of southern Bahia. In Centres of Plant Diversity: A Guide and Strategy for their Conservation, vol. 3 (S.D. Davis, V.H. Heywood, O.H. MacBryde and A.C. Hamilton, eds) pp. 364–8. London: IUCN-WWF.Google Scholar
  38. Thomas, W.W., Carvalho, A.M. de, Amorim, A.M., Garrison, J. and dos Santos, T.S. (in review) Diversity of woody plants in the Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. Biotropica.Google Scholar
  39. United States Soil Conservation Service (1975) Soil Taxonomy, A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys. Agriculture Handbook 436. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  40. Vanzolini, P.E. (1988) Distributional patterns of South American lizards. In Proceedings of a Workshop on Neotropical Distribution Patterns (P.E. Vanzolini and W.R. Heyer, eds) pp. 317–42. Rio de Janeiro: Academia Brasileira de Ciências.Google Scholar
  41. Vanzolini, P.E. and Heyer, W.R. (eds) (1988) Proceedings of a Workshop on Neotropical Distribution Patterns. Rio de Janeiro: Academia Brasileira de Ciências.Google Scholar
  42. Whitmore, T.C. and Prance, G.T. (eds) (1987) Biogeography and Quaternary History in Tropical America. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • WM. WAYT THOMAS
  • ANDRE´ M. V. DE CARVALHO
  • ANDRE´ M. A. AMORIM
  • JUDITH GARRISON
  • ALBA L. ARBELA´EZ

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations