Functional diversity and community structure of microorganisms in uncontaminated and creosote-contaminated soils as determined by sole-carbon-source-utilization

Article
  • 381 Downloads

Abstract

Functional diversities of microorganisms from uncontaminated and creosote-contaminated soils were assessed using sole-carbon source-utilization patterns. The microorganisms were extracted from soil samples and inoculated into Gram-negative Biolog plates incubated at 23°C. Measurement of Shannon diversity, richness, and evenness indices, principal component analysis (PCA), and colour development rank (CDR) plots were based upon substrate utilization. Calculations incorporated data from both the 95 regular Gram-negative Biolog microplate wells and a selection of 23 carbon substrates that are included on Biolog Ecoplates. There did not appear to be significant differences in Shannon diversity and richness indices, PCA, or CDR plots between aminated and creosote-contaminated soils. Significant differences in Shannon diversity and evenness indices that were apparent with the use of the 23 ecologically relevant microplate wells were mostly absent based on calculations that incorporated the regular 95 Gram-negative Biolog microplate wells. Resolution of microbial communities by PCA, however, appeared to be reduced by the use of the 23 Biolog microplate wells compared to the regular 95 carbon sources.

Biodiversity community contamination creosote microorganisms soil 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atlas R.M. 1984 Diversity of microbial communities. In Advances in Microbial Ecology, 7th edn, ed Marshall, K.C. pp. 1–47. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  2. Atlas R.M. & Bartha R. 1993 Microbial Ecology: Fundamentals and Applications, 3rd edn. Don Mills: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  3. Atlas R.M., Horowitz A., Krichevsky M. & Bej A.K. 1991 Response of microbial populations to environmental disturbance. Microbial Ecology 22, 249–256.Google Scholar
  4. Beare M.H., Parmalee R.W., Hendrix P.F. & Cheng W. 1992 Microbial and faunal interactions and effects on litter nitrogen and decomposition in agroecosystems. Ecological Monographs 62, 569–591.Google Scholar
  5. Borneman J. & Triplett E.W. 1997 Molecular microbial diversity in soils from Eastern Amazonia: evidence for unusual microorganisms and microbial population shifts associated with deforestation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63, 2647–2653.Google Scholar
  6. Brock T.D, Madigan M.T., Martinko J.M. & Parker J. 1994 Biology of Microorganisms, 7th edn. pp. 238, 240, 241, 323, 695. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.Google Scholar
  7. Couteaux M.-M, Bottner P. & Berg B. 1995 Litter decomposition, climate, and litter quality. TREE 10(2), 63–66.Google Scholar
  8. Fuller M.E., Scow K.M., Lau S. & H. Ferris H. 1997 Trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene effects on the structure and function of the soil community. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 29(1): 75–89.Google Scholar
  9. Garland J.L. & Mills A.L. 1991 Classification and characterization of heterotrophic microbial communities on the basis of patterns of community-level sole-carbon-source-utilization. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 57, 2351–2359.Google Scholar
  10. Glantz S.A. 1992 Primer of Biostatistics, 3rd edn. New York: Mc-Graw Hill Inc.Google Scholar
  11. Haack S.K., Garchow H., Klug M.J. & Forney L.J. 1995 Analysis of factors affecting the accuracy, reproducibility, and interpretation of microbial community carbon source utilization patterns. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61, 1458–1468.Google Scholar
  12. Hawksworth, D.L. & Coleman R.R. 1992 Microbial diversity 21: biodiversity amongst microorganisms and its relevance. Biodiversity and Conservation 1, 221–226.Google Scholar
  13. Hitzl W., Rangger A., Sharma S. & Insam H. 1997 Separation power of the 95 substrates of the BIOLOG system determined in various soils. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 22, 167–174.Google Scholar
  14. Krebs C.J. 1994 Ecology: The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance, 4th edn. pp. 514–541. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers.Google Scholar
  15. Magurran A.E. 1988 Ecological Diversity and its Measurement. pp. 11–29, 35-39. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  16. May R.M. 1976 Patterns in multi-species communities. In Theoretical Ecology: Principles and Applications, ed. May, R.M. pp. 142–162. Toronto: W.B. Saunders Co.Google Scholar
  17. Meyer O. 1993 Functional groups of microorganisms. In Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function. Ecological Studies 99, eds Schulze E.D. & Mooney H.A. pp. 67–96, Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. Ricklefs R.E. & Shluter D.S. 1993 Species Diversity in Ecological Communities: Historical and Geographical Perspectives. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  19. Schulze E.D. & Mooney H.A. 1993 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  20. Staddon W.J., Duchesne L.C. & Trevors J.T. 1996 Conservation of forest soil microbial diversity: the impact of fire and research needs. Environmental Reviews 4, 267–275.Google Scholar
  21. Staddon W.J., Duchesne L.C. & Trevors J.T. 1997 Microbial diversity and community structure of post-disturbance forest soils as determined by sole-carbon-source-utilization patterns. Microbial Ecology 34, 125–130.Google Scholar
  22. Staddon W.J., Duchesne L.C., Trevors J.T. & Colombo C.A. 1998 Soil microbial diversity and community structure across a climatic gradient in Western Canada. Biodiversity and Conservation (in press).Google Scholar
  23. Torsvik V., Salte K., Sorheim R. & Goksoyr J. 1989 Comparison of phenotypic diversity and DNA heterogeneity in a population of soil bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 56, 776–781.Google Scholar
  24. United Nations Environment Program. 1995 Global Biodiversity Assessment. pp. 1075–1103. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Watve M.G & Gangal R.M. 1996 Problems in measuring bacterial diversity and a possible solution. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62, 4299–4301.Google Scholar
  26. Whittaker R.H. 1970. Communities and Ecosystems. pp. 25–29. Toronto: Collier-Macmillan Canada Ltd.Google Scholar
  27. Wunsche L., Bruggemann L. & Babel W. 1995 Determination of substrate utilization patterns of soil microbial communities: an approach to assess population changes after hydrocarbon pollution. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 17, 295–306.Google Scholar
  28. Zak J.C., Willig M.R., Moorhead D.L. & Wildman H.G. 1994 Functional diversity of microbial communities: a quantitative approach. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26, 1101–1108.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Rapid Science Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental BiologyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations