Advertisement

European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 106, Issue 6, pp 537–541 | Cite as

Fungal Infection and Mechanical Wounding Induce Disease Resistance in Scots Pine

  • Paal Krokene
  • Halvor Solheim
  • Bo Långström
Article

Abstract

Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) recovering from a 90–100% defoliation 2–3 years previously were pretreated with small mechanical wounds or inoculations with the blue-stain fungi Leptographium wingfieldii and Ophiostoma canum. Pretreated trees were less susceptible to a subsequent massive inoculation with L. wingfieldii than untreated control trees, which were extensively colonised by the mass-inoculation. A low pretreatment dosage of L. wingfieldii was somewhat more effective in inducing disease resistance than a higher dosage. Pretreatment with L. wingfieldii, O. canum, and mechanical wounding were about equally effective inducers of resistance in Scots pine, even though L. wingfieldii is known to produce much more extensive phloem necrosis than the other pretreatments. Thus, the strength of the induced resistance response did not depend on the amount of host tissues that was destroyed by the pretreatment. Previously, induced disease resistance has been demonstrated in Norway spruce (Picea abies), and the present study shows that similar responses can be activated in Scots pine.

induced disease resistance Leptographium wingfieldii Ophiostoma canum Pinus sylvestris Tomicus minor Tomicus piniperda 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Annila E, Långström B, Varama M, Hiukka R and Niemelä P (1999) Susceptibility of defoliated Scots pine to spontaneous and induced attack by Tomicus piniperda and Tomicus minor. Silva Fenn 33: 93–106Google Scholar
  2. Campbell MM and Ellis BE (1992) Fungal-elicitor mediated responses in pine cell cultures. I. Induction of phenylpropanoid metabolism. Planta 186: 409–417Google Scholar
  3. Chester KS (1933) The problem of acquired physiological immunity in plants. Q Rev Biol 8: 275–324Google Scholar
  4. Christiansen E, Krokene P, Berryman AA, Franceschi VR, Krekling T, Lieutier F, Lönneborg A and Solheim H (1999) Mechanical injury and fungal infection induce acquired resistance in Norway spruce. Tree Physiol 19: 399–403Google Scholar
  5. Cook SP and Hain FP (1988) Wound response of loblolly and shortleaf pine attacked by Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) or its fungal associate Ceratocystis minor (Hedgcock) Hunt. Can J For Res 18: 33–37Google Scholar
  6. Franceschi VR, Krekling T, Berryman AA and Christiansen E (1998) Specialized phloem parenchyma cells in Norway spruce (Pinaceae) bark are an important site of defense reactions. Amer J Bot 85: 601–615Google Scholar
  7. Franceschi VR, Krokene P, Krekling T and Christiansen E (2000) Phloem parenchyma cells are involved in local and distant defense responses to fungal inoculation or bark beetle attack in Norway spruce (Pinaceae). Amer J Bot 87: 314–326Google Scholar
  8. Francke-Grosmann H (1967) Ectosymbiosis in wood-inhabiting insects. In: Henry SM (ed) Symbiosis (pp. 141–205) Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Hammerschmidt R and Smith Becker J (1997) Acquired resistance to disease in plants. Horticult Rev 18: 247–289Google Scholar
  10. Hotter GS (1997) Elicitor-induced oxidative burst and phenylpropanoid metabolism in Pinus radiata cell suspension cultures. Aust J Plant Physiol 24: 797–804Google Scholar
  11. Kessmann H, Staub T, Hofmann C, Maetzke T, Herzog J, Ward E, Uknes S and Ryals J (1994) Induction of systemic aquired resistance in plants by chemicals. Annu Rev Phytopathol 32: 439–459Google Scholar
  12. Krokene P and Solheim H (1998) Phytopathogenicity of four blue-stain fungi associated with aggressive and nonaggressive bark beetles. Phytopathology 88: 39–44Google Scholar
  13. Krokene P and Solheim H (1999) What do low-density inoculations with fungus tell us about fungal pathogenicity and tree resistance? In: Lieutier F, Mattson WJ and Wagner MR (eds) Physiology and Genetics of Tree-Phytophage Interactions (pp 353–362) Les Colloques de l'INRA 90, INRA Editions, Versailles, FranceGoogle Scholar
  14. Krokene P, Christiansen E, Solheim H, Berryman AA and Franceschi VR (1999) Induced resistance to pathogenic fungi in Norway spruce. Plant Physiol 121: 565–570Google Scholar
  15. Krokene P, Solheim H and Christiansen E (2000) Necrotizing fungi are effective inducers of disease resistance in Norway spruce. Plant Pathol 49: in pressGoogle Scholar
  16. Lesney MS (1989) Growth responses and lignin production in cell suspenisons of Pinus elliottii ‘elicited’ by chitin, chitosan or mycelium of Cronartium quercum f.sp. fusiforme. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 19: 23–31Google Scholar
  17. Lieutier F, Yart A, Garcia J, Ham MC, Morelet M and Levieux J (1989) Champignons phytopathog`enes associ´es `a deux col´eopteres scolytidae du pin sylvestre (Pinus sylvestris L.) et ´etude pr´eliminaire de leur agressivit´e envers l'hOote. Ann Sci For 46: 201–216Google Scholar
  18. Långström B (1983) Life cycles and shoot-feeding of pine shoot beetles. Stud For Suec 163: 1–29Google Scholar
  19. Långström B and Hellqvist C (1991) Shoot damage and growth losses following three years of Tomicus-attack in Scots pine stands close to a timber storage site. Silva Fenn 25: 133–145Google Scholar
  20. Långström B, Solheim H, Hellqvist C and Gref R (1993) Effects of pruning young Scots pines on host vigour and susceptibility to Leptographium wingfieldii and Ophiostoma minus, two bluestain fungi associated with Tomicus piniperda. Eur J For Pathol 23: 400–415Google Scholar
  21. Långström B, Olofsson E, Lindelöw Å and Larsson S (1999) BT mot tallmätaren på Hökensås (BT spraying against the pine looper at Hökensås) Skog & Forskning 4: 28–34Google Scholar
  22. Nagy NE, Franceschi VR, Solheim H, Krekling T and Christiansen E (2000)Wound-induced traumatic resin duct formation in stems of Norway spruce (Pinaceae): anatomy and cytochemical traits. Amer J Bot 87: 302–313Google Scholar
  23. Paine TD and Stephen FM (1987) Influence of tree stress and site quality on the induced defense system of loblolly pine. Can J For Res 17: 569–571Google Scholar
  24. Reglinski T, Stavely FJL and Taylor JT (1998) Induction of phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity and control of Sphaeropsis sapinea infection in Pinus radiata by 5–chlorosalicylic acid. Eur J For Pathol 28: 153–158Google Scholar
  25. Ryals J, Uknes S and Ward E (1994) Systemic aquired resistance. Plant Physiol 104: 1109–1112Google Scholar
  26. SAS Institute (1987) SAS/STAT guide for personal computers, version 6 edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
  27. Solheim H and Långström B (1991) Blue-stain fungi associated with Tomicus piniperda in Sweden and preliminary observations on their pathogenicity. Ann Sci For 48: 149–156Google Scholar
  28. Solheim H, Långström B and Hellqvist C (1993) Pathogenicity of the blue-stain fungi Leptographium wingfieldii and Ophiostoma minus to Scots pine: effect of tree pruning and inoculum density. Can J For Res 23: 1438–1443Google Scholar
  29. Solheim H, Krokene P and Långström B (2000) Comparing growth and virulence of blue-stain fungi associated with the pine shoot beetles Tomicus minor and T. piniperda. Plant Pathol (submitted)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paal Krokene
    • 1
  • Halvor Solheim
    • 2
  • Bo Långström
    • 3
  1. 1.Norwegian Forest Research InstituteÅsNorway
  2. 2.Norwegian Forest Research InstituteÅsNorway
  3. 3.Department of EntomologySwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations