Occurrence in Italy and characteristics of lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) resistant to phenylamide fungicides
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- Cobelli, L., Collina, M. & Brunelli, A. European Journal of Plant Pathology (1998) 104: 449. doi:10.1023/A:1008696021621
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Control of lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) with phenylamide fungicides has failed in some intensive lettuce-producing areas in Northern Italy since Spring 1993. Before then, these chemicals and particularly metalaxyl, provided the best disease control. The sensitivity of Bremia lactucae isolates collected in such areas to metalaxyl was evaluated in the laboratory. These strains grew and sporulated profusely on lettuce seedlings treated with 100 and 200 ppm of metalaxyl, whereas sensitive control strains were completely inhibited when treated with fungicide concentrations ranging from 0.5–1 ppm. Thus in Italy occurrence of resistance to phenylamide fungicides in Bremia lactucae has also been demonstrated, as in almost all the countries where these chemicals were previously authorised. Subsequently, a demonstration of occurrence of resistance was made and the virulence pattern of several strains (resistant and sensitive to metalaxyl) was characterised using differential NL series containing the 13 DM resistant genes or R factors. The results suggest the occurrence of a new pathotype in Italy different from all the 16 NL Bremia lactucae races studied.