Advertisement

Pharmacy World and Science

, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 219–224 | Cite as

APOM‐project: a first study of pharmacy organization and management

  • Mark P. Mobach
  • Jos J. van der Werf
  • Th.F.J. Tromp
Article

Abstract

In 1994, a Ph.D.‐study started regarding pharmacy, organization and management (APOM) in the Netherlands. The APOM‐project deals with the structuring and steering of pharmacy organization. This article describes a summary of the theoretical background of the project and the empirical results of a pilot study (n=24). No generalization to the population of pharmacies in the Netherlands was made. Three mixes of objectives in pharmacy organization were theoretically postulated; the product mix, the process mix, and the customer mix. Mainly, the purpose of the pilot study was method selection. Additionally, it was studied if thought and action of pharmacy managers corresponded, and, if theoretical pharmacy mixes corresponded with the empirical pharmacy mixes. Two methods were selected to be applied in a survey. Thought and action did not correspond for most pharmacy managers. Thought related to customer and product mainly, and action related to process and customer mainly.

Community pharmacy Management Organization structure Pharmacy organization Strategy Working organization 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Mobach MP, Werf JJ van der, Tromp TFJ. A survey of pharmacy organization and management. Pharm World Sci. (In Press.)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization (WHO). The role and the function of the community and hospital pharmacist in the health-care systems of Europe. Groningen: Styx publications, 1989:5–55.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stoner JAF, Wankel C. Management. Englewood Cliffs/New Jersey: Prentice Hall International Editions, 1986:111–2.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    KNMP (Royal Dutch Association for the Advancement of Pharmacy), Apotheek kwaliteitszaak-beleidsplan van de Nederlandse apotheker, (Pharmacy, a case of quality-policy plan of the Dutch pharmacist). Den Haag: KNMP, 1991:I–29.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cancrinus-Matthijsse A. Tussen hulpverlening en ondernemerschap-beroepsuitoefening en taakopvattingen van openbare apothekers in een aantal West-Europese landen (between assistance and entrepreneurship-professional exercise and task opinion of community pharmacists in a number of Western European countries). Thesis Publishers: Amsterdam, 1995.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Werf JJ van der. Openbare apotheker op een kruispunt-marktwerking in een gepolitiseerde branche!? (Public pharmacy on the crossroad-market forces in a politicized enterprise). Pharm Weekbl 1996;131(6):160–4.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jong JGAM de. De apotheker; beroepsbeoefenaar met vele gezichten (The pharmacist; professional practioner with many faces). Rede uitgesproken bij de aanvaarding van het ambt van bijzonder hoogleraar in de bedrijfskundige aspecten van de farmaceutische beroepsuitoefening vanwege OPG aan de Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, Rotterdam, January 1992:9–24.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anonymous. Pharmacy. The report of a committee of inquiry appointed by the Nuffield Foundation. London: Nuffield Foundation, 1986:16.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bergman U, Wilholm BE. Drug related problems causing admission to a medical clinic. Eur J Pharmacol 1981;(20): 193–200.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blackwell B. The drug defaulter. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1972;(13):841.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blom LThG. Developing patient education in community pharmacy practice. Utrecht: Elinkwijk, 1996.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Castro I, Bonal, J, et al. The role of the therapeutic committee in the quality control programme of the hospital de la Sant Creu and Sant Pau. Sant Pau: 1987:38–43.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Evans L, Spelman M. The problem of non-compliance. Drugs, 1983;(25):63–76.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Holmberg L, Böttiger LE. The drug-consuming patient and his drugs. Acta Med Scand 1983;(213):205–16.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hood JC, Murphy JE. Patient noncompliance can lead to hospital readmissions. Hospitals J.A.H., 1978; (A52):79–84.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    KNMP (Royal Dutch Association for the Advancement of Pharmacy). Apotheek-, Werk-en Kontrolenormen (AWEK), (Pharmacy, Work and Check Standards). Den Haag: KNMP, March 1988:11–12,21.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    KNMP (Royal Dutch Association for the Advancement of Pharmacy). Nederlandse Apotheeknorm (NAN), (Dutch Pharmacy Standard). Den Haag: KNMP, April 1996.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kruithof B. Het conflict tussen apothekers en drogisten-de professionalisering van twee beroepsgroepen tussen 1865 en 1932 (The conflict between pharmacists and chemists). Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum, 1995.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Latiolais C, Berry C. Misuse of prescription medications by outpatients. Drug Intell Clin Pharm 1969;(3):270.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mann RD. Risk and consent to risk in medicine. Carnforth: Parthenon Publishing Group Ltd, 1989:24–25.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mobach MP, Werf JJ van der. Het baliemodel in de apotheek (The counter model in pharmacy examined). Pharm Weekbl 1993:128(33/34):998–1002.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mobach MP. The work at the pharmacy: Sweden and the Netherlands compared. Pharm World Sci 1994;16(4):193–200.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nielsen PL. Receptkontroll. Farm Tidene 1984;(94):913–20.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Paes AHP. Apotheker en artsen in overleg?-kontakten in de eerste lijn (Pharmacists and general practitioners in consultation?-contacts in primary health care). Utrecht, 1989:32–3.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Parkin DM, Henney CR, Quirk J, Crooks J. Deviation from prescribed drug treatment after discharge from hospital. Brit Med J 1976;(2):686.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pothier PE. Patients compliance in therapy. Drug Intell Clin Pharm 1976;(10):318.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sackett TL, Haynes RB. Compliance with therapeutic regimens. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tolo KW, Dinkel R, Horisberger B. Improving drug safety-a joint responsibility. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1991:55,66.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Trigt AM van. Making news about medicines. Enschede: Febo, 1995.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tromp TFJ. Apotheker op koers (Pharmacist on course). Pharm Weekbl 1990;125(44):1132–8.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Verbeek-Heida P. De eigen wijsheid van de patiënt, alledaagse overwegingen bij geneesmiddelen gebruik (The impertinence (own wisdom) of the patient). Amsterdam, 1992:9–10.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Winters J. Management of pharmaceutical services in community pharmacy. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Management of Clinical Pharmacy Services. Barcelona: Rasgo Editorial S.A., 1986:121–128.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    World Health Organization (WHO). Second meeting on the role of the pharmacist: quality pharmacuetical services, benefits for governments and the public (pharmaceutical care). Tokyo: WHO, 1993.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zijlstra IF. De regionaal klinisch farmacoloog-farmacotherapie overleg met huisarts en apotheker (The area clinical pharmacologist-pharmacotherapy consultation in general practice). Groningen, 1991:7–8.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Anonymous. Overheid tornt aan monopolie apotheker-Ook medicijnen laten verkopen door supermarkten (Government unstitches monopoly pharmacist-Sell medicine in supermarkets). Algemeen Dagblad, 23 February 1994.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Apoteksbolaget AB. Pharmacies in Sweden, annual report 1992 for Apoteksbolaget AB. Stockholm: Ehrenstråhle & Co, 1993:6.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Carroll NV. Financial management for pharmacists-a decision making approach. Beckenham: Lea & Febiger, 1991:1–2.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Draugalis JR, Bootman JL, Larson LN, McGhan WF. Pharmacoeconomics, current concepts. Kalamazoo, MI: The Upjohn Company, 1989:6–11.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Goseling C. Traditionele apotheken verdwijnen in plan kabinet (Traditional pharmacies disappear in plan of cabinet). Utrechts Nieuwsblad, 22 February 1994; quoted in 'Uit de media', OPG;(192), 24 February 1994.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Stoddard GL, Drummond MF. How to read clinical journals: to understand an economic evaluation. Can Med Assoc J 1984;130:1428–34.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Werf JJ van der, t'Sas TH, Oosterveld MH, Jong-van den Berg LTW de, Reekum AH van. De arbeidsorganisatie van de open-bare apotheek (The working organization of the community pharmacy). Pharm Weekbl 1995;130(15):382–9.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wiarda Beckmann Stichting. Winst op recept-De genees-middelenvoorziening in Nederland (Profit on prescription-The medicine provision in the Netherlands). Deventer: Kluwer, 1977:127–8.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wöhe G. Einführung in die Algemeine Betriebswirtschaftlehre (Introduction to General Business Administration), München: Verlag Franz Vahlen GmbH, 1974:38.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fornell C. A National Customer Satisfaction Barometer (The Swedish Experience). Michigan: University of Michigan, School of Business Administration, January 1991:1.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hepler CD, Strand LM. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. Am J Pharm Ed 1990;47:533–43.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Russell CG, Wilcox EM, Hicks CI. Interpersonal communication in pharmacy-an interactionist approach. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1982:1–2.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Strand LM, Cipolle RJ, Morley PC. Pharmaceutical care: an introduction, current concepts. Kalamazoo, MI: The Upjohn Company, 1992:6.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wertheimer AI, Smith MC. Pharmacy practice, social and behavioral aspects. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1981:107.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hildebrandt H. Gesundheitsförderung und die Apotheke der Zukunft (Health stimulation and the pharmacy of the future), Pharm Zeit 1992:35(137).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    KNMP (Royal Dutch Association for the Advancement of Pharmacy). Apotheek kwaliteitszaak-beleidsplan van de Nederlandse apotheker (Pharmacy, Quality Business-Policy plan of the Dutch pharmacist). Den Haag: KNMP, 1991:I,29.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    KNMP (Royal Dutch Association for the Advancement of Pharmacy), KNMP-ledenpeiling 1993-Verslag van een onderzoek onder openbare apothekers, (KNMP-Member Sounding 1993-Report of a study among community pharmacists), Den Haag: KNMP, December 1993:8–9,18,26.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Leufkens HGM. Het Nuffield-rapport: optimisme en vertrouwen in de Engelse farmacie (The Nuffield report: optimism and confidence in the English pharmacy). Pharm Weekbl 1987;122:401–5.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Snier H. Concurrentie & strategie in de geneesmiddelensector (Competition & strategy in the Pharmaceutical Sector). Thesis. Eburon: Delft, 1995.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pols B. Opkomst postorderfarmacie maakt apothekers nerveus, (Origin of mail order pharmacy makes pharmacists nervos). NRC Handelsblad, 11 februari 1994.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tromp TFJ. De toekomst is aan ons (The future is ours). Pharm Weekbl 1991;126(46):1157–62.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wolf P de, Snier H, Kruijff MI de, Rooij JM van. Diagnose van de boycot van postorderfarmacie (Diagnosis of the Boycot of Mail-order Pharmacy). Rotterdam: Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Faculteit Bedrijfskunde, vakgroep Strategie en Omgeving, 1995.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Anonymous. Report on the meeting of the 'Good Pharmacy Practice' Working Group. Brussel: PGEU (Pharmaceutical Group of the European Union) 17-01-1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark P. Mobach
    • 1
  • Jos J. van der Werf
    • 2
  • Th.F.J. Tromp
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Management and OrganizationUniversity of GroningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Faculty of Management and Organization and Dept. of Social Pharmacy and Pharmaco-Epidemiology at theUniversity Centre for Pharmacy, University of GroningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Dept. of Social Pharmacy and Pharmaco‐Epidemiology at theUniversity Centre for Pharmacy, University of GroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations