Environmental and Resource Economics

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 95–117

The Validity of Environmental Benefits Transfer: Further Empirical Testing

  • Roy Brouwer
  • Frank A. Spaninks


This paper provides further empirical evidence of the validity of environmental benefits transfer based on CV studies by expanding the analysis to include control factors which have not been accounted for in previous studies. These factors refer to differences in respondent attitudes. Traditional population characteristics were taken into account, but these variables do not explain why respondents from the same socio-economic group may still hold different beliefs, norms or values and hence have different attitudes and consequently state different WTP amounts. The test results are mixed. The function transfer approach is valid in one case, but is rejected in the 3 other cases investigated in this paper. We provide further evidence that in the case of statistically valid benefits transfer, the function approach results in a more robust benefits transfer than the unit value approach. We also show that the equality of coefficient estimates is a necessary, but insufficient condition for valid benefit function transfer and discuss the implications for previous and future validity testing.

benefits transfer contingent valuation environmental valuation validity testing 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roy Brouwer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Frank A. Spaninks
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment (CSERGE)University of East AngliaNorwich and
  2. 2.University College LondonUK (e-mail
  3. 3.Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM)Vrije UniversiteitAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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