Applied Intelligence

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 59–77 | Cite as

The Connectionist Inductive Learning and Logic Programming System

  • Artur S. Avila Garcez
  • Gerson Zaverucha


This paper presents the Connectionist Inductive Learning and Logic Programming System (C-IL2P). C-IL2P is a new massively parallel computational model based on a feedforward Artificial Neural Network that integrates inductive learning from examples and background knowledge, with deductive learning from Logic Programming. Starting with the background knowledge represented by a propositional logic program, a translation algorithm is applied generating a neural network that can be trained with examples. The results obtained with this refined network can be explained by extracting a revised logic program from it. Moreover, the neural network computes the stable model of the logic program inserted in it as background knowledge, or learned with the examples, thus functioning as a parallel system for Logic Programming. We have successfully applied C-IL2P to two real-world problems of computational biology, specifically DNA sequence analyses. Comparisons with the results obtained by some of the main neural, symbolic, and hybrid inductive learning systems, using the same domain knowledge, show the effectiveness of C-IL2P.

theory refinement machine learning artificial neural networks logic programming computational biology 


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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Artur S. Avila Garcez
  • Gerson Zaverucha

There are no affiliations available

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