Advertisement

Reading and Writing

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 303–335 | Cite as

Morphological analysis, phonological analysis and learning to read French: a longitudinal study

  • Séverine Casalis
  • Marie-France Louis-Alexandre
Article

Abstract

This paper presents a longitudinal study, from kindergarten to secondgrade, which aims to examine the relationship between morphologicalanalysis, phonological analysis and learning to read. Three phonologicalawareness tasks, five derivational and four inflectional subtests wereadministered to fifty children at each of the three levels. Evolution ofperformance was analyzed through the three years. Data showed that withthe exception of two subtests, performance increased from kindergarten tofirst grade and from first grade to second grade, without reaching ceilingperformance in second grade, at least for morphological subtests. Linksbetween morphological and phonological analyses were very strong: inparticular, syllable segmentation was highly correlated with themorphological subtests in kindergarten while phonemic segmentation wascorrelated with morphological subtests in first and second grade. Therewere also strong links between morphological analysis and reading.Regression analyses showed that while phonological awarenessexplained a major part of variance in first grade, both phonologicaland morphological scores explained significant part of variance of bothdecoding and comprehension reading scores in second grade. Thus, thislongitudinal study contributes to the evidence of a link between bothphonological and morphological analysis and learning to read French.

Morphological analysis Phonological awareness Reading acquisition 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beauvillain, C. & Segui, C. (1992). Representation and processing of morphological information. In: R. Frost & L. Katz (eds.), Orthography, phonology, morphology and meaning (pp. 377–388). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  2. Berko, J. (1958). The child's learning of English morphology, Word 14: 150–177.Google Scholar
  3. Bertelson, J. & de Gelder, B. (1989). Learning about reading from illiterates. In: A. M. Galaburda (ed), From neuron to reading (pp. 1–12). Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bialystok, E. & Ryan, E. (1985). A metacognitive framework for the development of first and second language skills. In: D. Forrest-Pressley, G.E. MacKinnon & T. G. Waller (eds) Metacognition, cognition and human performance Vol. 1 (pp. xxx). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bishop, D.V.M. (1983). T.R.O.G. Test for reception of grammar. Medical research council. University of Manchester. Chapel Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bradley, L. & Bryant, P. (1983). Categorizing sounds and learning to read: a causal connection, Nature 301: 419–421.Google Scholar
  7. Caramazza, A., Laudanna, A. & Romani, C. (1988). Lexical access and inflectional morphology, Cognition 28: 297–332.Google Scholar
  8. Carlisle, J. (1987). The use of morphological knowledge in spelling derived forms by learning-disabled and normal students, Annals of Dyslexia 39: 90–108.Google Scholar
  9. Carlisle, J. (1988). Knowledge of derivational morphology and spelling ability in fourth, sixth, and eighth graders, Applied Psycholinguistics 9: 247–266.Google Scholar
  10. Carlisle, J.F. (1995). Morphological awareness and early reading achievement. In: L. Feldman (ed), Morphological aspects of language processing (pp. 189–209). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  11. Carlisle, J. & Nomanbhoy, D.M. (1993). Phonological and morphological awareness in first graders, Applied Psycholinguistics 14: 177–195.Google Scholar
  12. Cazden, C.B. (1968). The acquisition of nouns and verb inflections, Child Develoment 49: 433–448.Google Scholar
  13. Elbro, C. (1989). Morphological awareness in dyslexia. In: C. von Euler, I. Lundberg & Lennerstrand (eds.), Brain and reading. Structural and functional anomalies in devel-opmental dyslexia with special reference to interactions, memory functions, linguistic processes and visual analysis in reading (pp. 189–209). London: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  14. Elbro, C. & Arnbak, E. (1996). The role of morpheme recognition and morphological awareness in dyslexia, Annals of Dyslexia 46: 209–240.Google Scholar
  15. Feldman, L.B. (1991). The contribution of morphology to word recognition, Psychological Research 53: 33–41.Google Scholar
  16. Feldman, L.B. (1994). Beyond orthography and phonology: differences between inflections and derivations, Journal of Memory and Language 33: 442–470.Google Scholar
  17. Flower, A.E. & Liberman, I.Y. (1995). The role of phonology and orthography in morpheme awareness. In: L. Feldman (ed.), Morphemic Aspects of Language Processing (pp. 157–188). Hillsdale: NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  18. Fox, B. & Routh, D.K. (1975). Analyzing spoken language into words, syllables and phonemes: A developmental study, Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 4: 331–342.Google Scholar
  19. Gombert, J.-E. (1992). Metalinguistic development. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  20. Jones, N.K. (1991). Development of morphophonemic segments in children's mental representations, Applied Psycholinguistics 12: 217–239.Google Scholar
  21. Kuczaj, S.A. (1978). Children's judgments of grammatical and ungrammatical irregular past-tense verbs, Child Development 49: 318–326.Google Scholar
  22. Leong, C.K. (1989) Productive knowledge of derivational rules in poor readers, Annals of Dyslexia 39: 94–115.Google Scholar
  23. Liberman, I.Y., Shankweiler, D., Fisher, T.W. & Carter, B. (1974). Explicit Syllable and Phoneme Segmentation in the Young Child, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 18: 201–212.Google Scholar
  24. Lundberg, I., Olofsson, A. & Wall, S. (1980). Reading and Spelling Skills in the First School Years Predicted from Phonemic Awareness Skills in Kindergarten, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 21: 159–173.Google Scholar
  25. Macwhinney, B. (1975). Rules, rote, and analogy in morphological formations by Hungarian children, Journal of Child Language 2: 65–77.Google Scholar
  26. Mahony, D. (1994). Using sensitivity to word structure to explain variance in high school and college level reading ability, Reading and writing: an interdisciplinary journal 6: 19–44.Google Scholar
  27. Mahony, D.L. & Mann, V.A. (1992). Using children's humor to clarify the relationship between linguistic awareness and future reading ability, Cognition 45: 63–186.Google Scholar
  28. Mann, V.A. & Liberman, I.Y. (1984). Phonological awareness and verbal short term memory: can they presage early reading success?, Journal of Learning Disabilities 17: 592–598.Google Scholar
  29. Morais, J. (1991). Constraints on the development of phonemic awareness. In: S. Brady & D. Shankweiler (eds.), Phonological processes in literacy. A tribute to Isabelle Liberman (pp. 5–27). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  30. Morais, J., Cary, L., Alegria, J. & Bertelson, P. (1979). Does awareness of speech as a sequence of phonemes arise spontaneously?, Cognition 7: 323–331.Google Scholar
  31. Nagy, W.E., Diabkidoy, I.A. & Anderson, R.C. (1993). The acquisition of morphology: learning the contribution of the suffixes to the meaning of derivations, Journal of Reading Behavior 23: 155–170.Google Scholar
  32. Nagy, W.E., Herman, P.A. & Anderson, R.C. (1985). Learning words from context, Reading Research Quarterly 20: 233–253.Google Scholar
  33. Perez-Pereira, M. (1988). The acquisition of morphemes: some evidence from Spanish, Journal of Psycholinguistic research 18: 289–312.Google Scholar
  34. Rubin, H. (1988). Morphological knowledge and early writing ability, Language and Speech 31: 337–355.Google Scholar
  35. Segui, J. Dupoux, E. & Mehler, J. (1990). The role of the syllable in speech segmentation, phoneme identification, and lexical access. In: G.T.M. Altmann (ed.), Cognitive models of speech processing: Psycholinguistic and computational perspectives (pp. 263–280). Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press.Google Scholar
  36. Selby, S. (1972). The development of morphological rules in children, The British Journal of Educational Psychology 42: 293–299.Google Scholar
  37. Snowling, M. (1980). The development of grapheme-phoneme correspondance in normal and dyslexic readers, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 29: 294–305.Google Scholar
  38. Snowling, M., Goulandris, N., Bowlby, M. & Howell, P. (1986). Segmentation and speech analysis in relation to reading skill: a developmental analysis, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 41: 489–507.Google Scholar
  39. Stanovich, K.E., Cunningham, A.E. & Cramer, B. (1984). Assessing phonological awareness in kindergarten: issues of task comparability, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 38: 175–190.Google Scholar
  40. Treiman, R. & Zukowski, A. (1991). Levels of phonological awareness. In: S. Brady & D. Shankweiler (eds.), Phonological processes in literacy. A tribute to Isabelle Liberman (pp. 67–84). NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  41. Yopp, H.K. (1988). The validity and reliability of phonemic awareness tests, Reading Research Quarterly 23: 159–177.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Séverine Casalis
    • 1
  • Marie-France Louis-Alexandre
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Psychologie CognitiveVilleneuve d'AscqFrance
  2. 2.Laboratorie de Psychologie CogntiiveVilleneuve d'AscqFrance

Personalised recommendations