Reading and Writing

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 277–302 | Cite as

Rapid processing of base and derived forms of words and grades 4, 5 and 6 children's spelling

  • Chen Kan Leong
Article

Abstract

This paper emphasizes the productive aspect of morphological processingand the effect on spelling proficiency in 226 grades 4, 5 and 6 children. Two convergent studies using reaction time measures aimed at exploring ten- to twelve-year old spellers' sensitivity to, and knowledge of, derivational morphology with lexical items varying in orthographic and phonological transparency and opacity. There is some evidence, from the accurate and rapid vocal production of base forms or derived forms of source words in sentential contexts, that the depth of segmentation to base morphology and the converse process of derived morphology of words, plays a role in spelling performance of these children. There are complex orthographic, phonological and semantic factors affecting morphological processing.

Base Derived forms of morphology Grades 4, 5 & 6 children Rapid processing Spelling performance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aronoff, M. (1976). Word formation in generative grammar [Linguistic Inquiry Monograph 1]. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  2. Badecker, W. & Caramazza, A. (1989). A lexical distinction between inflection and derivation, Linguistic Inquiry 20: 108–116.Google Scholar
  3. Barnett, V. & Lewis, T. (1984). Outliers in statistical data, 2nd edn. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  4. Bauer, L. (1983). Engish word formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Ben-Dror, I., Bentin, S. & Frost, R. (1995). Semantic, phonologic, and morphological skills in reading disabled and normal children: Evidence from perception and production of spoken Hebrew, Reading Research Quarterly 30: 876–893.Google Scholar
  6. Caramazza, A. (1988). Some aspects of language processing revealed through the analysis of acquired aphasia: The lexical system, Annual Review of Neurosciences 11: 395–421.Google Scholar
  7. Caramazza, A. (1991). Issues in reading, writing and speaking: A neuropsychological perspective. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. Carlisle, J.F. (1987). The usae of morphological knowledge in spelling derived forms by learning disabled and normal students, Annals of Dyslexia 37: 90–108.Google Scholar
  9. Carlisle, J.F. (1988). Knowledge of derivational morphology and spelling ability in fourth, sixth, and eighth graders, Applied Psycholinguistics 9: 247–266.Google Scholar
  10. Carlisle, J.F. & Nomanbhoy, D.M. (1993). Phonological and morphological awareness in first graders, Applied Psycholinguistics 14: 177–195.Google Scholar
  11. Carroll, J.B., Davies, P. & Richman, B. (1971). The American heritage word frequency book. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin.Google Scholar
  12. Cassar, M. & Treiman, R. (1997). The beginning of orthographic knowledge: Children's knowledge of double letters in words, Journal of Educational Psychology 89: 631–644.Google Scholar
  13. Chomsky, N. & Halle, M. (1968). The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  14. Cutler, A. (1983). Lexical complexity and sentence processing. In: G.B. Flores D'Arcais & R.J. Jarvella (eds.), The process of language understanding (pp. 43–79). New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  15. Derwing, B.L., Smith, M.L. & Wiebe, G.E. (1995). On the role of spelling in morpheme recognition: Experimental studies with children and adults. In: L.B. Feldman (eds.), Morphological aspects of language processing (pp. 3–27). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Elbro, C. (1990). Differences in dyslexia: A study of reading strategies and deficits in a linguistic perspective. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar
  17. Elbro, C. (1991). Dyslexics and normal beginning readers read by different strategies: A com-parison of strategy distributions in dyslexics and normal readers, International Journal of Applied Linguistics 1: 19–37.Google Scholar
  18. Feldman, L.B. (1991). The contribution of morphology to word recognition, Psychological Research 53: 33–41.Google Scholar
  19. Feldman, L.B. (ed.) (1995). Morphological aspects of language processing. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  20. Fowler, A.E. & Liberman, I.Y. (1995). The role of phonology and orthography in morphological awareness. In: L.B. Feldman (ed.), Morphological aspects of language processing (pp. 157–188). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  21. Frost, R. & Katz, L. (1992). Orthography, phonology, morphology, and meaning. Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  22. Hancin-Bhatt, B. & Nagy, W. (1994). Lexical transfer and second language morphological development, Applied Psycholinguistics 15: 289–310.Google Scholar
  23. Hanson, V.L. & Wilkenfeld, D. (1985). Morphophonology and lexical organization in deaf readers, Language and Speech 28: 269–280.Google Scholar
  24. Henderson, E.H. (1990). Teaching spelling, 2nd edn. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  25. Henderson, L. (1985). Toward a psychology of morphemes. In: A.W. Ellis (ed.), Progress in the psychology of language, Vol. 1 (pp. 15–72). London: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  26. Henry, M.K. (1993). Morphological structure: Latin and Greek roots and affixes as upper grade code strategies, Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 5: 227–241.Google Scholar
  27. Huberty, C.J. (1975). Discriminant analysis, Review of Educational Research 45: 545–598.Google Scholar
  28. Javella, R.J. & Snodgrass, J.G. (1974). Seeing ring in rang and retain in retention: On recog-nizing stem morphemes in printed words, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 13: 590–598.Google Scholar
  29. Jastak, S. & Wilkinson, G.S. (1984). Wide Range Achievement Test, rev. edn. Wilmington, DE: Jastak Associates.Google Scholar
  30. King, E.M. ed. (1982). Canadian Tests of Basic Skills: Multilevel edition/Levels 9- 12/Forms 5 & 6. Toronto: Nelson.Google Scholar
  31. Kreiner, D. (1992). Reaction time measures of spelling: Testing a two-strategy model of skilled spelling, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Language, Memory and Cognition 18: 765–776.Google Scholar
  32. Leong, C.K. (1989). The effects of morphological structure on reading proficiency: A developmental study, Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 1: 357–379.Google Scholar
  33. Leong, C.K. & Parkinson, M.E. (1995). Processing of English morphological structure by poor readers. In: C.K. Leong & R.M. Joshi (eds.), Developmental and acquired dyslexia: Neuropsychological and neurolinguistic perspectives (pp. 237–261). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  34. Mahony, D.L. (1994). Using sensitivity to word structure to explain variance in high school and college level reading ability, Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 6: 19–44.Google Scholar
  35. Nunes, T., Bryant, P. & Bindman, M. (1997). Morphological spelling strategies: Developmental stages and processes, Developmental Psychology 33: 637–649.Google Scholar
  36. Perfetti, C.A. (1985). Reading ability. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Perfetti, C.A. (1997). The psycholinguistics of spelling and reading. In: C.A. Perfetti, L. Rieben & M. Fayol (eds.), Learning to spell: Research, theory and practice across languages (pp. 21–38). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  38. Read, C. (1975). Children's categorization of speech sounds in English. Urbana, IL: National Center of Teachers of English.Google Scholar
  39. Read, C. (1986). Children's creative spelling. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  40. Rubin, H. (1988). Morphological knowledge and early writing ability, Language and Speech 31: 337–355.Google Scholar
  41. Sandra, D. (1994). The morphology of the mental lexicon: Internal word structure viewed from a psycholinguistic perspective, Language and Cognitive Processes 9: 227–269.Google Scholar
  42. Santee, J.L. & Egeth, H.E. (1982). Do reaction time and accuracy measure the same aspects of letter recognition? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 8: 489–501.Google Scholar
  43. Scalise, S. (1988). Inflection and derivation, Linguistics 26: 561–581.Google Scholar
  44. Seidenberg, M.S. (1985). The time course of information activation and utilization in visual word recognition. In: D. Besner, T.G. Waller & G.E. Mackinnon (eds.), Reading research: Advances in theory and practice, Vol. 5 (pp. 199–252). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  45. Shankweiler, D., Lundquist, E., Dreyer, L.G. & Dickinson, C.C. (1996). Reading and spelling difficulties in high school students: Causes and consequences, Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Joural 8: 267–294.Google Scholar
  46. Shu, H. & Anderson, R.C. (1997). Role of radical awareness in the character and word acquisition of Chinese children, Reading Research Quarterly 32: 78–89.Google Scholar
  47. Treiman, R. (1993). Beginning to spell: A study of first-grade children. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Treiman, R. & Cassar, M. (1996). Effects of morphology on children's spelling of final consonant clusters, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 63: 141–170.Google Scholar
  49. Tyler, A. & Nagy, W. (1989). The acquisition of English derivational morphology, Journal of Memory and Language 28: 649–667.Google Scholar
  50. Tyler, A. & Nagy, W. (1990). Use of derivational morphology during reading, Cognition 36: 17–34.Google Scholar
  51. Williams, E. (1981). On the notions of 'lexically related' and 'head of a word', Linguistic Inquiry 12: 245–274.Google Scholar
  52. Wysocki, K. & Jenkins, J. (1987). Deriving word meanings through morphological generalization, Reading Research Quarterly 22: 66–81.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chen Kan Leong
    • 1
  1. 1.College of EducationUniversity of Saskatchewan, SaskatoonSaskatchewanCanada

Personalised recommendations