Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design

, Volume 14, Issue 8, pp 731–751 | Cite as

Deciphering common failures in molecular docking of ligand-protein complexes

  • Gennady M. Verkhivker
  • Djamal Bouzida
  • Daniel K. Gehlhaar
  • Paul A. Rejto
  • Sandra Arthurs
  • Anthony B. Colson
  • Stephan T. Freer
  • Veda Larson
  • Brock A. Luty
  • Tami Marrone
  • Peter W. Rose
Article

Abstract

Common failures in predicting crystal structures of ligand-protein complexes are investigated for three ligand-protein systems by a combined thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of the binding energy landscapes. Misdocked predictions in ligand-protein docking are classified as `soft' and `hard' failures. While a soft failure arises when the search algorithm is unable to find the global energy minimum corresponding to the crystal structure, a hard failure results from a flaw of the energy function to qualify the crystal structure as the predicted lowest energy conformation in docking simulations. We find that neither the determination of a single structure with the lowest energy nor finding the most common binding mode is sufficient to predict crystal structures of the complexes, which belong to the category of hard failures. In a proposed hierarchical approach, structural similarity clustering of the conformations, generated from equilibrium simulations with the simplified energy function, is followed by energy refinement with the AMBER force field. This protocol, that involves a hierarchy of energy functions, resolves some common failures in ligand-protein docking and detects crystallographic binding modes that were not found during docking simulations.

binding free energy profile clustering ligand-protein docking molecular recognition Monte Carlo simulations structural similarity 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gennady M. Verkhivker
    • 1
  • Djamal Bouzida
    • 1
  • Daniel K. Gehlhaar
    • 1
  • Paul A. Rejto
    • 1
  • Sandra Arthurs
    • 1
  • Anthony B. Colson
    • 1
  • Stephan T. Freer
    • 1
  • Veda Larson
    • 1
  • Brock A. Luty
    • 1
  • Tami Marrone
    • 1
  • Peter W. Rose
    • 1
  1. 1.Agouron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.San DiegoU.S.A.

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