Landscape Ecology

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 257–270 | Cite as

Changing patterns in the urbanized countryside of Western Europe

  • Marc Antrop


Urbanization refers to the complex interaction of different processes which transform landscapes formed by rural life styles into urban like ones. Urbanization causes profound changes in the ecological functioning of the landscape and gradually results in a changing spatial structure, i.e. forms new landscape patterns. The existing cities and urban network form the framework for this change, which is affecting increasingly larger areas in the countryside. Urbanization is mainly studied from social and economical viewpoints. Urban planners think about optimization of the land use and about aesthetics when reshaping the environment. Landscape ecology is lacking in urban planning because of different goals and concepts, but mostly because of missing significant information about these highly dynamical landscapes.

countryside planning rural landscape urbanization Western Europe 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agger, P. and Brandt, J. 1984. Registration methods for studying the development of small scale biotope structures in rural Denmark. Roskilde University Centre, IALE, Proc. Of the First Int. Seminar on Methodology in Landscape Ecological research and Planning, theme II, 61-72.Google Scholar
  2. Albrechts, L., Antrop, M., Saey, P., Vermeersch, Ch. and Van den Broeck, J. 1998. Startnota Provinciaal Ruimtelijk Structuurplan Oost-Vlaanderen. Deel 1a: vertrekbasis. Gent, Provincie Oost-Vlaanderen, 127 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Antrop, M. 1997. The concept of traditional landscapes as a base for landscape evaluation and planning. The example of Flanders Region. Landscape and Urban Planning 38: 105–117.Google Scholar
  4. Antrop, M. 1996. Impact of urbanization upon the countryside. Roskilde University Center. Ph.d.Course, 1996.Google Scholar
  5. Antrop, M. 1994. Landscapes of the urban fringe. In Van Brussel tot Siebenbürgen. Progress in human geography in Europe. Liber amicorum Prof. Dr. H. Van der Haegen. Edited by M. Goossens and E. Van Hecke. Acta Geographia Lovaniensia 34: 501–514.Google Scholar
  6. Antrop, M. 1993. The transformation of the Mediterranean landscapes: an experience of 25 years of observations. Proc. Int. Symp. on the future of mediterranean landscapes, Montecatini, Landscape and Urban Planning 24: 3–13.Google Scholar
  7. Antrop, M. 1990. Geographical site analysis. In Aerial Photography and Geophysical Prospection in Archeology 2. Proc. Second Int. Symp. of ICL, Brussel. Edited by C. Leva, pp. 13–24.Google Scholar
  8. Antrop, M. 1988. Invisible connectivity in rural landscapes. In Connectivity in Landscape Ecology. Proc. 2nd. Intern. Sem. of IALE. Münster. Edited by K.-F. Schreiber, pp. 57–62. Münsterische Geographische Arbeiten 29.Google Scholar
  9. Berry, B. and Garrison, W. 1958. The functional basis of the central place hierarchy. Economic Geog. 34: 145–154.Google Scholar
  10. Bradshaw, A.D. 1984. Ecological principles and land reclamation practice. Landscape and Urban Planning, 11: 35–48.Google Scholar
  11. Brandt, J. 1998. Key concepts and interdisciplinearity in Landscape Ecology: a summing-up and outlook. In Key concepts in landscape ecology. Edited by J.W. Dover and R.G.H. Bunce, pp. 421–434. Proc. of the 1998 European Congress of IALE, UK IALE 3-September 1998.Google Scholar
  12. Breuste et al. 1998. Urban Ecology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  13. Bryant, C.R. 1986. Farmland conservation and farming landscapes in urban-centred regions: the case of the Ile-de-France region. Landscape and Urban Planning 13: 251–276.Google Scholar
  14. Bryant, C.R. 1984. The recent evolution of farming landscapes in urban-centred regions. Landscape and Urban Planning 11: 307–326.Google Scholar
  15. Bryant, C., Russwurm, L. and McLellan, A. 1982. The city's countryside: Land and its management in the rural urban fringe. Longman, London.Google Scholar
  16. Bunce, R.G.H. 1984. The use of simple data in the production of strategic sampling systems. Roskilde University Centre, IALE, Proc. Of the First Intern. Seminar on Methodology in Landscape Ecological research and Planning, theme IV, pp. 45–56.Google Scholar
  17. Buursink, J. 1992. The European city: does it already exist? Landscape and Urban Planning 22: 243–254.Google Scholar
  18. Carter, H. 1995. The study of urban geography. Arnold, London, 420 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Chisholm, M. 1962. Rural settlement and land use. Hutchinson University Library, London.Google Scholar
  20. Christaller, W. 1933. Die zentraler Orte in Suddeutschland. Jena, Fischer.Google Scholar
  21. Chovanec, A. 1994. Man-made wetlands in urban recreational areas -- a habitat for endangered species? Landscape and Urban Planning 29: 43–54.Google Scholar
  22. Coeterier, J.F. 1994. Non-agricultural use of the countryside in the Netherlands: what is the local opinion? Landscape and Urban Planning 29: 55–69.Google Scholar
  23. Daniels, R.E. 1988. The Role of Ecology in Planning: Some Misconceptions. Landscape and Urban Planning 15: 291–300.Google Scholar
  24. Dramstad, W.E., Fjellstad, W.J. and Fry G.L.A. 1998. Landscape indices -- useful tools or misleading numbers? In Key concepts in landscape ecology. Edited by J.W. Dover and R.G.H. Bunce, pp. 63–68. Proc. of the 1998 European Congress of IALE, UKIALE 3-September 1998.Google Scholar
  25. Dessylas, M.D. 1990. The Adaptation of the Social and Structural Policy of the EEC to the Changed Market Situation: The Protection of the Countryside. Landscape and Urban Planning 18: 197–201.Google Scholar
  26. Farina, A. 1998. Principles and Methods in Landscape Ecology. Chapman & Hall, New York, 235 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Forman, R. & Godron, M. 1986. Landscape Ecology. J. Wiley, New York, 619 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Freeman, C. 1999. Development of a simple method for site survey and assessment in urban areas. Landscape and Urban Planning 44: 1–11.Google Scholar
  29. Fry, G.L.A. 1998. Changes in landscape structure and its impact on biodiversity and landscape values: a Norwegian perspective. In Key concepts in landscape ecology. Edited by J.W. Dover and R.G.H. Bunce, pp. 81–92. Proc. of the 1998 European Congress of IALE, UK-IALE 3-September 1998.Google Scholar
  30. Gatrell, A. 1983. Distance and Space: A geographical perspective. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 195 pp.Google Scholar
  31. Golley, F.B. and Bellot, J. 1991. Interactions of landscape ecology, planning and design. Landscape and Urban Planning 21: 3–11.Google Scholar
  32. Green, B.H. and Marshall, I.C. 1987. An assessment of the role of golf courses in Kent, England, in protecting wildlife and landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 14: 153–154.Google Scholar
  33. Haggett, P. 1975. Geography: a modern synthesis. Harper & Row, London.Google Scholar
  34. Harms, W.B., Smeets, P.J.A.M. and Werner, A. 1998. Nature and landscape planning as policy in NW Europe: Dutch and German examples. In Key concepts in landscape ecology. Edited by J.W. Dover and R.G.H. Bunce, pp. 355–382. Proc. of the 1998 European Congress of IALE, UK-IALE 3-September 1998.Google Scholar
  35. Herbert, D.T. and Thomas, C.J. 1982. Urban Geography. A first approach. J. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Hermy, M. and De Blust, G. (eds.). 1997. Punten en lijnen in het landschap. Stichting Leefmilieu, Schuyt & Co. Haarlem, Uitgeverij M. Van de Wiele, Brugge, 336 pp.Google Scholar
  37. Hohenberg, P. and Hollen Lees, L. 1990. De ontwikkeling van de stad. In De wording van Europa: Ontwikkeling van de stad. Edited by H. Dijkstra. M&P Uitgeverij, Weert, Nederland.Google Scholar
  38. Holden, R. and Turner, T. 1997. Western Europe, current city expansion and the use of GIS, Landscape and Urban Planning 36: 315–326.Google Scholar
  39. Hunsaker, C.T., O'Neill, R.V., Jackson, B.L., Timmins, S.P., Levine, D.A. and Norton, D.J. 1994. Sampling to characterize landscape pattern. Landscape Ecol. 9: 207–226.Google Scholar
  40. Ilbery, B. 1998. The geography of rural change. Longman, London, 267 pp.Google Scholar
  41. Jim, C.Y. 1993. Trees and landscape of a suburban residential neighbourhood in Hong Kong. Landscape and Urban Planning 23: 119–143.Google Scholar
  42. Jordan, T. 1973. The European culture area. Harper International edition.Google Scholar
  43. Kontuly, T. 1992. National-, regional-and urban-scale population deconcentration in West Germany. Landscape and Urban Planning 22: 219–228.Google Scholar
  44. Lebeau, R. 1969. Les grands types de structures agraires dans le monde. Paris, Masson.Google Scholar
  45. Lewis, G.J. 1979. Rural communities. Davis & Charles, London.Google Scholar
  46. Lewis, G.J. and Maund, D.J. 1976. The Urbanization of the Countryside: a framework for Analysis. Geografiska Annaler 58B: 17–27.Google Scholar
  47. Lösch, A. 1954. The economics of location (translated version). Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  48. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. 1990. Longman, London.Google Scholar
  49. Lucy, W. and Philips, D. 1997. The post-suburban era comes to Richmond: city decline, suburban transition and exurban growth. Landscape and Urban Planning, 36: 259–275.Google Scholar
  50. McDonald, G.T. and Brown, A.L. 1984. The land suitability approach to strategic land-use planning in urban fringe areas. Landscape and Urban Planning, 11: 125–150.Google Scholar
  51. Meeus, J.H.A., Wijermans, M.P. and Vroom, M.J. 1990. Agricultural Landscapes in Europe and their transformation. Landscape and Urban Planning 18: 289–352.Google Scholar
  52. Monheim, R. 1992,, Town and transport planning and the development of retail trade in metropolitan areas of West Germany. Landscape and Urban Planning 22: 121–136.Google Scholar
  53. Naveh, Z. and Liebermann, A. 1994. Landscape ecology: Theory and application. First edition. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Naveh, Z. 1995. Interactions of landscapes cultures. Landscape Urban Planning 32: 43–54.Google Scholar
  55. Newman, P. Kenworthy, J. and Vintila, P. 1992. Housing, Transport and urban form. Institute for Science and Technology Policy, Murdoch University, Australia.Google Scholar
  56. Northam, R.M. 1975. Urban geography. J. Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Pacione, M. 1984. Rural geography. Harper & Row, London.Google Scholar
  58. Prigogine, I. and Stengers, I. 1987. Orde uit Chaos. Uitgeverij Bert Bakker, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  59. Refrew, C. and Bahn, P. 1991. Archaeology. Theories, methods and practice. Thames and Hudson, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Richter, H. 1984. Structural problems of urban landscape ecology. Roskilde University Centre, Proc. of the first Int. Seminar on methodology in landscape ecological research and planning, vol. V, pp. 29–41.Google Scholar
  61. Roberts, B. 1987. The making of the English village. Longman, London, 237 pp.Google Scholar
  62. Rogers, G.F. and Rowntree, R.A. 1988. Intensive surveys of Structure and Change in urban natural Areas. Landscape and Urban Planning 15: 59–78.Google Scholar
  63. Saey, P. 1973. Three fallacies in the literature on central place theory. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 64: 181–194.Google Scholar
  64. Schreiber, K.-F. (ed.). 1988. Connectivity in Landscape Ecology. Proc. 2nd Int. Seminar of IALE, Münster 1987. Münster, Schöningh, Münsterische geographische Arbeiten.Google Scholar
  65. Schroeder, H.W. 1988. Visual Impact of Hillside Development: Comparison of Measurements Derived from Aerial Photographs and Ground-Level Photographs. Landscape and Urban Planning, 15: 119–126.Google Scholar
  66. Smardon, R.C. 1988. Perception and Aesthetics of the Urban Environment: review of the Role of Vegetation. Landscape and Urban Planning 15: 85–106.Google Scholar
  67. Stanners, D. and Bourdeau, Ph. (eds.). 1995. Europe's Environment. The DobéÍë Assessment. European Environment Agency, EC DG XI and Phare, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  68. Stern, M. and Marsh, W. 1997. The decentered city: edge cities and the expanding metropolis. Landscape and Urban Planning 36: 243–246.Google Scholar
  69. Sukopp, H. and Wittig, R. (eds.) 1993. Stadtökologie. Fischer, Stuttgart, 402 pp.Google Scholar
  70. Sukopp, H. and Weiler, S. 1988. Biotope Mapping and Nature Conservation Strategies in Urban Areas of the Federal Republic of Germany. Landscape and Urban Planning 15: 39–58.Google Scholar
  71. Sullivan, W.C. 1994. Perceptions of the rural-urban fringe: citizen preferences for natural and developed settings. Landscape and Urban Planning 29: 85–101.Google Scholar
  72. Timár, J. 1992. The main features of suburbanization in the Great Hungarian Plain. Landscape and Urban Planning 22: 177–187.Google Scholar
  73. Turner, T. 1988. The Role of Ecology in Planning: A Comment by Tom Turner on R.E. Daniels. Landscape and Urban Planning 15: 301–302.Google Scholar
  74. UNESCO. 1973. Ecological effects of energy utilization in urban and industrial systems. Exp. Panel Project 11, MAB report series no. 13, Paris.Google Scholar
  75. United Nations Centre for Human Settlement (HABITAT) 1996. An urbanizing world. Global report on human settlements 1996. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  76. Van der Haegen, H. Pattyn, M. and Cardyn, C. 1982. The Belgian settlement systems. In West-European Settlement Systems. Acta Geographica Lovaniensia 22: 251–263.Google Scholar
  77. Van Hecke, E. and Dickens, C. 1994. Bevolking. In Leren om te Keren. milieu-en natuurrapport Vlaanderen. Edited by A. Verbruggen, pp. 45–61. Vlaamse Milieumaatschappij en Garant Uitgeverij.Google Scholar
  78. Verhoeve, A. and Vervloet, J. (eds.). 1992. The transformation of the European rural landscape: methodological issues and agrarian change 1770–1914. Tijdschrift van de Belgische Vereniging voor Aardrijkskundige Studies LXI: 1.Google Scholar
  79. Vink, A.P.A. 1982. Anthropocentric landscape ecology in rural areas. In Perspectives in Landscape ecology. Contributions to research, planning and management of our environment. Edited by S.P. Tjallingii and A.A. de Veer, pp. 87–98. Proc. Intern. Congress, Veldhoven April 6–11, 1981, Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  80. Vink, A.P.A. 1980. Landschapsecologie en landgebruik. Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema.Google Scholar
  81. Wehrwein, G. 1942. The rural-urban fringe. Economic Geography 18: 217–228.Google Scholar
  82. Welch, J.M. 1994. Street and park trees of Boston: a comparison of urban forest structure. Landscape and Urban Planning 29: 131–143.Google Scholar
  83. Westmacott, R. 1991. Scale economics: ecological theory and planning practice in urban landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 21: 21–29.Google Scholar
  84. Wrbka, T. 1998. Landscape structure as indicators for sustainable land use? -- a case study in apline and lowland landscapes of Austria. In Key concepts in landscape ecology. Edited by J.W. Dover and R.G.H. Bunce, pp. 177–180. Proc. of the 1998 European Congress of IALE, UK-IALE 3-September 1998.Google Scholar
  85. Yokohari, M., Brown, R.D. and Takeuchi K. 1994. A framework for the conservation of rural ecological landscapes in the urban fringe area of Japan. Landscape and Urban Planning 29: 103–116.Google Scholar
  86. Zmyslony, J. and Gagnon, D. 1998. Residential management of urban front-yard landscape: A random process? Landscape and Urban Planning 40: 295–307.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc Antrop
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of GhentGentBelgium

Personalised recommendations