Advertisement

Machine Translation

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 287–307 | Cite as

The Origins of the Translator's Workstation

  • John Hutchins
Article

Abstract

The first proposals for various component tools of what is now called the “translator's workstation” or “translator's workbench” are traced back to the 1970s and early 1980s in various, often independent, proposals at different stages in the development of computers and in their use by translators.

translation tools workstation translation memory 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ALPAC: 1966, Languages and Machines: Computers in Translation and Linguistics. A report by the Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee, Division of Behavioral Sciences, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  2. Amano, S., K. Takeda and K. Hasebe: 1989, ‘What Should a Translation Work Bench Be Like?’, in Manuscripts and Program: IFTT'89 Harmonizing Human Beings and Computers in Translation. Kokusai Hon'yaku Gijutsu Fooramu, International Forum for Translation Technology, Oiso, Japan, pp. 15-18.Google Scholar
  3. Arthern, P.J.: 1979, ‘Machine Translation and Computerized Terminology Systems: A Translator's Viewpoint’, in B.M. Snell (ed.), Translating and the Computer, Proceedings of a Seminar, London, 14th November 1978, North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 77-108.Google Scholar
  4. Arthern, P.: 1986, ‘The translator's word processor’, Language Monthly 34, 24-25.Google Scholar
  5. Boitet, C.: 1990, ‘Towards Personal MT: general design, dialogue structure, potential role of speech’, in Karlgren (1990), vol. 3, pp. 30-35.Google Scholar
  6. Brace, C., M. Vasconcellos and L.C. Miller: 1995, ‘MT Users and Usage: Europe and the Americas’, MT News International 12, 14-17.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, P., J. Cocke, S. Della Pietra, V. Della Pietra, F. Jelinek, R. Mercer and P. Roossin: 1988, ‘A Statistical Approach to Language Translation’, in D. Vargha (ed.), Coling Budapest: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, John von Neumann Society for Computing Sciences, Budapest, pp. 71-76.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, P.F., J. Cocke, S.A. Della Pietra, V.J. Della Pietra, F. Jelinek, J.D. Lafferty, R.L. Mercer and P. Roossin: 1990, ‘A Statistical Approach to Language Translation’, Computational Linguistics 16, 79-85.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, P.F., J.C. Lai and R.L. Mercer: 1991, ‘Aligning Sentences in Parallel Corpora’, in 29th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Berkeley, California, pp. 169-176.Google Scholar
  10. Church, K.W.: 1993, ‘Charalign: a Program for Aligning Parallel Texts at the Character Level}’, in 31st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Columbus, Ohio, pp. 1-8.Google Scholar
  11. Church, K.W. & E. Hovy: 1993, ‘Good Applications for Crummy Machine Translation’, Machine Translation 8, 239-258.Google Scholar
  12. Dagan, I., K.W. Church and W.A. Gale: 1993, ‘Robust BilingualWord Alignment for Machine Aided Translation’, in Proceedings of the Workshop on Very Large Corpora: Academic and Industrial Perspective, Columbus, Ohio, pp. 1-8.Google Scholar
  13. Flanagan, M.: 1996, ‘Two Years Online: Experiences, Challenges and Trends’, in Expanding MT Horizons: Proceedings of the Second Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, Montreal, Quebec, pp. 192-197.Google Scholar
  14. Gale, W.A. and K.W. Church: 1991, ‘A Program for Aligning Sentences in Bilingual Corpora’, in 29th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Berkeley, California, pp. 177-184.Google Scholar
  15. Gordon, I.: 1997, ‘Translation Memory Systems’, in ITI Conference 11: Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference of the Institute of Translation and Interpreting, Harrogate, England, pp. 15-20.Google Scholar
  16. Harris, B.: 1988, ‘Bi-text, a new concept in translation theory’, Language Monthly 54, 8-10.Google Scholar
  17. Huang, X.: 1990, ‘Machine Translation In A Monolingual Environment’, in Third International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages, Austin, TX, pp. 33-41.Google Scholar
  18. Hutchins, W.J.: 1978, ‘Machine translation and machine-aided translation’, Journal of Documentation 34, 119-159.Google Scholar
  19. Isabelle, P., M. Dymetman, G. Foster, J.M. Jutras, E. Macklovitch, F. Perrault, X. Ren and M. Simard: 1992, ‘Translation Analysis and Translation Automation’, in TMI-93: the Fifth International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation with Special Emphasis on: MT in the Next Generation, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 201-217.Google Scholar
  20. Jacqmin, L.: 1992, ‘La traduction automatique au service de l'utilisateur monolingue’ [Machine translation for the monolingual user], Meta 37, 610-623.Google Scholar
  21. Jones, D. and J.I. Tsujii: 1990, ‘Interactive high-quality translation for monolinguals’, in Third International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages, Austin, TX, pp. 43-46Google Scholar
  22. Karlgren, H. (ed.): 1990, COLING-90: Papers presented to the 13th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Yliopistopaino, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  23. Kay, M.: 1973, ‘The MIND system’, in R. Rustin (ed.), Natural Language Processing, Algorithmics Press, New York, pp. 155-188.Google Scholar
  24. Kay, M.: 1980/97, ‘The Proper Place of Men and Machines in Language Translation’, Research report CSL-80-11, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, CA. Reprinted in Machine Translation 12(1997), 3-23.Google Scholar
  25. Kay, M. and M. Röscheisen: 1993, ‘Text-Translation Alignment’, Computational Linguistics 19, 121-142.Google Scholar
  26. Kjærsgaard, P.S.: 1987, ‘REFTEX - a context-based translation aid’, in Third Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Copenhagen, pp. 109-112.Google Scholar
  27. Krollmann, F.: 1971, ‘Linguistic Data Banks and the Technical Translator’, Meta 16, 117-124.Google Scholar
  28. Krollmann, F.: 1974, ‘Data Processing at the Translator's Service’, Babel 20, 121-129.Google Scholar
  29. Krollmann, F., H.J. Schuck and U. Winkler: 1965, ‘Herstellung Textbezogener Fachwortlisten mit einem Digitalrechner: Ein Verfahren der Automatischen Übersetzungshilfe’ [Production of Text-Related Term Lists with a Digital Computer: An Experiment in Computer-Aided Translation], Beiträge zur Sprachkunde und Informationsverarbeitung 5, 7-30.Google Scholar
  30. Kugler, M., K. Ahmad and G. Thurmair (eds): 1995, Translator's Workbench: Tools and Terminology for Translation and Text Processing, Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  31. Lippmann, E.O.: 1971, ‘An Approach to Computer-Aided Translation’, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Writing and Speech 14, 10-33.Google Scholar
  32. Lippmann, E.O.: 1975, ‘On-Line Generation of Terminological Digests in Language Translation. An Aid in Terminology Processing’, IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 18, 309-319.Google Scholar
  33. Lippmann, E.O. and W.J. Plath: 1970, ‘Time-Sharing and Computer-Aided Translation’, The Finite String 7(8), 1-4.Google Scholar
  34. Melby, A.K.: 1980, ‘ITS: Interactive Translation System’, in COLING 80: Dai 8kai keisan gengogaku kokusai kaigi, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 424-429.Google Scholar
  35. Melby, A.K.: 1981a, ‘A Bilingual Concordance System and its Use in Linguistic Studies’, in W. Gutwinski and G. Jolly (eds), The Eighth LACUS Forum 1981, Hornbeam Press, Columbia, SC. (1982), pp. 541-549.Google Scholar
  36. Melby, A.K.: 1981b, ‘Translators and Machines - Can they Cooperate?’ Meta 26, 23-34.Google Scholar
  37. Melby, A.K.: 1982, ‘Multi-Level Translation Aids in a Distributed System’, in J. Horecký (ed.), COLING 82: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Academia, Prague and North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 215-220.Google Scholar
  38. Melby, A.K.: 1984, ‘Machine Translation with Post Editing versus a Three-Level Integrated Translator Aid System’ [Presented at International Conference on Machine Translation, Cranfield University, February 1984], in I.D.K. Kelly (ed.), Progress in Machine Translation: Natural Language and Personal Computers, Sigma Press, Wilmslow, UK (1989), pp. 119-125.Google Scholar
  39. Melby, A.[K.]: 1992, ‘The Translator Workstation’, in J. Newton (ed.), Computers in Translation: A Practical Appraisal, Routledge, London, pp. 147-165.Google Scholar
  40. Nagao, M.: 1984, ‘A Framework of a Mechanical Translation between Japanese and English by Analogy Principle’, in A. Elithorn and R. Banerji (eds), Artificial and Human Intelligence, North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 173-180.Google Scholar
  41. Nirenburg, S.: 1992, ‘Tools for Machine-Aided Translation: The CMU TWS’, Meta 37, 709-720.Google Scholar
  42. Oettinger, A.G.: 1960, Automatic Language Translation: Lexical and Technical Aspects, with Particular Reference to Russian, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  43. Sadler, V.: 1989, Working with Analogical Semantics: Disambiguation Techniques in DLT, Foris, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  44. Simard, M., G.F. Foster and P. Isabelle: 1992, ‘Using Cognates to Align Sentences in Bilingual Corpora’, in Quatrième Colloque international sur les aspects théoriques et méthodologiques de la traduction automatique, Fourth International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation: Méthodes empiristes versus méthodes rationalistes en TA, Empiricist vs. Rationalist Methods in MT. TMI-92, Montréal, Canada, pp. 67-81.Google Scholar
  45. Somers, H., J.I. Tsujii and D. Jones: 1990, ‘Machine Translation without a source text’, in Karlgren (1990), Vol. 3, pp. 271-276.Google Scholar
  46. Theologitis, D.: 1997, ‘EURAMIS, the Platform of the EC Translator’, in EAMTWorkshop: Language Technology in Your Organization?, Copenhagen, pp. 17-32.Google Scholar
  47. Tong, L-C.: 1987, ‘The Engineering of a Translator Workstation’, Computers and Translation 2, 263-273.Google Scholar
  48. Vasconcellos, M. (ed.): 1988, Technology as Translation Strategy, State University of New York Press, Binghamton, NY.Google Scholar
  49. Vaumoron, J.A.: 1998, ‘An Ideal Workstation? Perspective of the In-House Translator’, in Vasconcellos (1988), pp. 36-41.Google Scholar
  50. Wright, L.D.: 1988, ‘Mercury: A Tool for the Management of Specialized Terminology’, in Vasconcellos (1988), pp. 92-96.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Hutchins
    • 1
  1. 1.University of East AngliaNorwichUK

Personalised recommendations