Sustained high yields of Gracilaria (Rhodophyta) grown in intensive large-scale culture

  • Thomas R. Capo
  • Juan C. Jaramillo
  • Albert E. Boyd
  • Brian E. Lapointe
  • Joseph E. Serafy
Article

Abstract

Gracilaria ferox J. Agardh was grown continuously in large, outdoor tanks under a pulse-fed nutrient regime for four years. Productivity ranged from 21.4 to 59.2 g d. wt m−2 d−1 with a mean of 39.7 g d. wt m−2 d−1 over the entire study period. Because the cultures were maintained under non-nutrient limiting conditions, productivity was regulated primarily by seasonal changes in light and temperature, which accounted for 75% of the variability of growth in algal yields. Salinity ranged from 31.0 to 36.5‰ and had insignificant effects on growth within this range. The original vegetative strain was maintained over the entire study without the need for additional supplementation from field-collected stock. Because of the pulse-fed nutrient supply, epiphytic growth on the target species was negligible (< 3% total biomass) throughout the study. The yields attained in this study rank among the highest reported for any intensively managed photosynthetic crop and demonstrate the feasibility of growing red macroalgae like Gracilaria at a sustained high yield in a large-scale, land-based culture system.

Gracilaria sustainable productivity land-based culture 

References

  1. Bird KT, Benson PH (1987) Seaweed Cultivation for Renewable Resources. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 381 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Bugbee BG, Salisbury FB (1988) Exploring the limits of crop productivity. I. Photosynthetic efficiency of wheat in high irradiance environments. Plant Physiol. 88: 869–878.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Daugherty BK, Bird KT (1988) Salinity and temperature effects on agar production from Gracilaria verrucosa strain G-16. Aquaculture 75: 105–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. DeBusk TA, Ryther JH (1984) Effects of seawater exchange, pH and carbon supply on the growth of Gracilaria tikvahiae (Rhodophyceae) in large scale cultures. Bot. mar. 27: 357–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Draper N, Smith H (1981) Applied Regression Analysis. Wiley Interscience, New York: 415–419.Google Scholar
  6. Eppley RW (1972) Temperature and phytoplankton growth in the sea. Fish. Bull. 70: 1063–1085.Google Scholar
  7. FAO (1996) Aquaculture Production Statistics 1985–1994. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Fisheries circular No. 815. Rev. 8, Rome. 189 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Goldman JC (1979) Outdoor algal mass cultures II. Photosynthetic yield limitations. Water Res. 13: 119–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guillard RRL (1975) Culture of phyoplankton for feeding marine invertebrates. In Smith WL, Chaney MH (eds), Culture ofMarine Invertebrate Animals. Plenum Press, New York: 29–60.Google Scholar
  10. Haglund K, Pedersén M (1993) Outdoor pond cultivation of the subtropical marine alga Gracilaria tenuistipata in brackish water in Sweden: growth, nutrient uptake, co-cultivation with rainbow trout and epiphyte control. J. appl. Phycol. 5: 271–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hanisak MD (1987) Cultivation of Gracilaria and other macroalgae in Florida for energy production. In Bird KT, Benson PH (eds) Seaweed Cultivation for Renewable Resources. Elsevier, Amsterdam: 191–217.Google Scholar
  12. Hanisak MD, Ryther JH (1986) The experimental cultivation of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae as an energy crop: an overview. In Barclay W, McIntosh (eds), Algal Biomass Technologies. J. Cramer, Berlin: 212–217.Google Scholar
  13. Hansen JE (1984) Strain selection and physiology in the development of Gracilaria mariculture. Hydrobiologia 116/117: 89–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hocking RR (1976) The analysis and selection of variables in linear regression. Biometrics 32: 1–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huguenin JE (1976) An examination of problems and potentials for future large-scale intensive seaweed culture system. Aquaculture 9: 313–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lapointe BE (1985) Strategies for pulsed nutrient supply to Gracilaria cultures in the Florida Keys: interactions between concentration and frequency of nutrient pulses. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 93: 211–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lapointe BE, Rice DL, Lawrence JH (1984a) Responses of photosynthesis, respiration, growth, and cellular constituents to hypo-osmotic shock in the red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae. J. comp. Physiol. Biochem. 77: 127–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lapointe BE, Ryther JH (1978) Some aspects of the growth and yield of Gracilaria tikvahiae in culture. Aquaculture 15: 185–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lapointe BE, Tenore KR, Dawes CJ (1984b) Interactions between light and temperature on the physiological ecology of Gracilaria tikvahiae (Gigartinales: Rhodophyta). Mar. Biol. 80: 161–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lapointe BE, Williams LD, Goldman JC, Ryther JH (1976) The mass outdoor culture of macroscopic algae. Aquaculture 8: 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mann KH (1973) Seaweeds: their productivity and strategy for growth. Science 182: 975–981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. McLachlan J, Bird KT, Greenwell m (1986) Seaweed resources for the extractive industry: what are the options? Monogr. Biol. 4: 1–12.Google Scholar
  23. Ryther JH (1977) Preliminary results with a pilot plant waste recycling marine aquaculture system. In D'Itri FM (ed.) Wastewater Renovation and Reuse. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York: 89–132.Google Scholar
  24. Ryther JH, Corwin N, DeBusk TA, Williams LD (1981) Nitrogen uptake and storage by the red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae (McLachlan, 1979). Aquaculture 26: 107–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ryther JH, DeBoer JA, Lapointe BE (1979) Cultivation of seaweeds for hydrocolloids, waste treatment and biomass for energy conversion. Proc. Int. Seaweed Symp. 9: 1–16.Google Scholar
  26. Smith AH, Nichols K, McLachlan J (1984) Cultivation of seamoss (Gracilaria) in St. Lucia, West Indies. Hydrobiologia 116/117: 249–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas R. Capo
    • 1
  • Juan C. Jaramillo
    • 2
  • Albert E. Boyd
    • 1
  • Brian E. Lapointe
    • 2
  • Joseph E. Serafy
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric ScienceDivision of Marine Biology & FisheriesMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution Inc.North Fort PierceUSA

Personalised recommendations