International Journal of Computer Vision

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 47–58 | Cite as

Transfer of Fixation Using Affine Structure: Extending the Analysis to Stereo

  • Stuart M. Fairley
  • Ian D. Reid
  • David W. Murray


This paper describes an algorithm for maintaining fixation upon a 3D body-centred point using 3D affine transfer, extending an earlier monocular method to stereo cameras. Transfer is based on corners detected in the image and matched over time and in stereo. The paper presents a method using all available matched data, providing immunity to noise and poor conditioning. The algorithm, implemented at video rates on a multi-processor machine, incorporates controlled degradation in the presence of insufficient data. Results are given from experiments using a four-axis active stereo camera platform, first which show the greater stability of the fixation point over the monocular method, both as it appears in the image and occurs in the scene; and, secondly, which show the recovery and evolution of 3D affine structure during fixation. It is shown that fixation and explicit structure recovery can occur separately, allowing the information required for gaze control to be computed in a fixed time.


Image Processing Artificial Intelligence Computer Vision Computer Image Fixed Time 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ballard, D.H. 1991. Animate vision. Artificial Intelligence, 48:57-86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barber, C.B., Dobkin, D.P., and Huhdanpaa, H. 1993. The quickhull algorithm for convex hulls. Technical Report GCG53, Geometry Center, University of Minnesota. Ftp-able from Scholar
  3. Bradshaw, K.J., Reid, I.D., and Murray, D.W. 1997. The active recovery of 3D motion trajectories and their use in prediction. IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 19(3):219-234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Demey, S., Zisserman, A., and Beardsley, P. 1992. Affine and projective structure from motion. In Proc. 3rd British Machine Vision Conf., Leeds, D. Hogg and R. Boyle (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, pp. 49-58.Google Scholar
  5. Faugeras, O.D. 1992. What can be seem in three dimensions with an uncalibrated stereo rig? In Proc. 2nd European Conf. on Computer Vision, Santa Margharita Ligure, Italy, G. Sandini (Ed.), Springer-Verlag, pp. 563-578.Google Scholar
  6. Fermüller, C. and Aloimonos, Y. 1993. The role of fixation in visual motion analysis. Int. J. Computer Vision, 11(2):165-186.Google Scholar
  7. Harris, C. 1992. Tracking with rigid models. In Active Vision, A. Blake and A. Yuille (Eds.), MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  8. Koenderink, J.J. and van Doorn, A. 1991. Affine structure from motion. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 8(2):377-385.Google Scholar
  9. Mundy, J.L. and Zisserman, A.P. (Eds.), 1992. Geometric Invariance in Computer Vision. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  10. Murray, D.W., Bradshaw, K.J., McLauchlan, P.F., Reid, I.D., and Sharkey, P.M. 1995. Driving saccade to pursuit using image motion. Int. J. Computer Vision, 16(3):205-228.Google Scholar
  11. Olson, T.J. and Coombs, D.J. 1991. Real-time vergence control for binocular robots. Int. J. Computer Vision, 7(1):67-89.Google Scholar
  12. Pahlavan, K., Uhlin, T., and Eklundh, J.-O. 1993. Dynamic fixation. In Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on ComputerVision, Berlin, IEEE Computer Society Press: Los Alamitos, CA, pp. 412-419.Google Scholar
  13. Reid, I.D. and Murray, D.W. 1993. Tracking foveated corner clusters using affine structure. In Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Computer Vision, Berlin, IEEE Computer Society Press: Los Alamitos, CA, pp. 76-83.Google Scholar
  14. Reid, I.D. and Murray, D.W. 1996. Active tracking of foveated corner clusters using affine structure. Int. J. Computer Vision, 18:41-60.Google Scholar
  15. Shapiro, L.S. 1993. Affine analysis of image sequences. D.Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  16. Tomasi, C. and Kanade, T. 1992. Shape and motion from image streams under orthography: A factorization approach. Int. J. Computer Vision, 9(2):137-154.Google Scholar
  17. Wang, H. and Brady, J.M. 1991. Corner detection for 3D vision using array processors. In Proc. BARNAIMAGE-91, Barcelona, Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  18. Yuille, A. and Hallinan, P. 1992. Deformable templates. In Active Vision, A. Blake and A. Yuille (Eds.), MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, pp. 21-38.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stuart M. Fairley
    • 1
  • Ian D. Reid
    • 1
  • David W. Murray
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Engineering ScienceUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK. E-mail

Personalised recommendations