Advertisement

The Journal of Technology Transfer

, Volume 26, Issue 1–2, pp 59–72 | Cite as

Objectives, Characteristics and Outcomes of University Licensing: A Survey of Major U.S. Universities

  • Jerry G. Thursby
  • Richard Jensen
  • Marie C. Thursby
Article

Abstract

This paper describes results of our survey of licensing at 62 research universities. We consider ownership, income splits, stage of development, marketing, license policies and characteristics, goals of licensing and the role of the inventor in licensing. Based on these results we analyze the relationship between licensing outcomes and both the objectives of the TTO and the characteristics of the technologies. Patent applications grow one-to-one with disclosures, while sponsored research grows similarly with licenses executed. Royalties are typically larger the higher the quality of the faculty and the higher the fraction of licenses that are executed at latter stages of development. Sponsored research is more likely to be included in a license if the new technology is at an early stage of development or if the TTO evaluates it as important. We find that additional disclosures generate smaller percentage increases in licenses, and those increases in licenses generate smaller percentage increases in royalties.

Keywords

Income Economic Growth Marketing Percentage Increase Industrial Organization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, J., 1990, 'Fundamental Stocks of Knowledge and Productivity Growth', Journal of Political Economy 98, 673–702.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, J., 1998, 'Endogenous R & D Spillovers and Industrial Research Productivity', manuscript, University of Florida.Google Scholar
  3. Association of University Technology, Inc., 1996, 1997. AUTM Licensing Survey.Google Scholar
  4. Cohen, W.M., R. Florida, L. Randazzese, and J. Walsh, 1998, 'Industry and the Academy: Uneasy Partners in the Cause of Technological Advance', in Roger Noll ed., Challenges to Research Universities, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, pp. 171–199.Google Scholar
  5. Henderson, R., A. Jaffe, and M. Trajtenberg, 1998, 'Universities as a Source of Commercial Technology: A Detailed Analysis of University Patenting, 1965- 1988', Review of Economics and Statistics, 119–127.Google Scholar
  6. Holmstrom, B., 1989, 'Agency Costs and Innovation', Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 12, 305–327.Google Scholar
  7. Jaffe, A., 1989, 'Real Effects of Academic Research', American Economic Review 79 5, 957–970.Google Scholar
  8. Jaffe, A., M. Trajtenberg, and R. Henderson, 1993, 'Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations', Quarterly Journal of Economics 108 3, 577–598.Google Scholar
  9. Jansen, C. and H. Dillon, 1999, 'Where do the Leads Come From? Source Data from Six Institutions', The Journal of the Association of University Technology Managers Google Scholar
  10. Jensen, R. and M. Thursby, 1999, 'Proofs and Prototypes for Sale: The Licensing of University Inventions', American Economic Review, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  11. Kamien, M., 1992, 'Patent Licensing', in R. Auman and S. Hart eds., Handbook of Game Theory, Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar
  12. Mansfield, E., 1995, 'Academic Research Underlying Industrial Innovations: Sources, Characteristics, and Financing', The Review of Economics and Statistics 77, 55–65.Google Scholar
  13. Mansfield, E. and Y. Lee, 1996, 'The Modern University: Contributor to Industrial Innovation and Recipient of Industrial R & D Support', Research Policy 25, 1027–1058.Google Scholar
  14. Mowery, D., R. Nelson, B. Sampat, and A. Ziedonis, 1999, 'The Effects of the Bayh-Dole Act on U.S. University Research and Technology Transfer: An Analysis of Data from Columbia University, the University of California, and Stanford University', Research Policy, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  15. Mowery, D. and A. Ziedonis, 1999, 'The Effects of the Bayh-Dole Act on U.S. University Research and Technology Transfer: Analyzing Data from Entrants and Incumbents', Research Policy, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  16. National Research Council, Research Doctorate Programs in the United States, 1995, M. Goldberger, B. Maher, and P. Flattau eds., Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  17. Parnes, M., G. Omenn, and E. Brock, 2000, 'A Case Study of System Complexity and Regional Approaches to Technology Transfer', The Journal of Technology Transfer, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  18. Rosenberg, N., 1992, 'Scientific Instrumentation and University Research', Research Policy 21, 381–390.Google Scholar
  19. Siegel, D., D. Waldman, and A. Link, 1999, 'Assessing the Impact of Organizational Practices on the Productivity of University Technology Transfer Offices: An Exploratory Study', NBER Working Paper a7256.Google Scholar
  20. Thursby, J. and S. Kemp, 2000, 'Growth and Productive Efficiency of University Intellectual Property Licensing', Research Policy, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  21. Thursby, J. and M. Thursby, 2000a, 'Who is Selling the Ivory Tower? Sources of Growth in University Licensing', NBER Working Paper a7718.Google Scholar
  22. Thursby, J. and M. Thursby, 2000b. 'Industry Perspectives on Licensing University Technologies: Sources and Problems', The Journal of the Association of University Technology Managers, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  23. Ziedonis, A., 1999, 'Inward Technology Transfer by Firms: The Case of University Technology Licenses', manuscript, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  24. Zucker, L., M. Darby, and J. Armstrong, 1998, 'Geographically Localized Knowledge: Spillovers or Markets', Economic Inquiry 36 1, 65–86.Google Scholar
  25. Zucker, L., M. Darby, and M. Brewer, 1998, 'Intellectual Capital and the Birth of U.S. Biotechnology Enterprises', American Economic Review 88, 290–306.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerry G. Thursby
    • 1
  • Richard Jensen
    • 2
  • Marie C. Thursby
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Economics, Krannert BuildingPurdue UniversityW. Lafayette
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsUniversity of Notre DameSouth Bend

Personalised recommendations