Brain Topography

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 11–19 | Cite as

Real Time Processing of Affective and Cognitive Stimuli in the Human Brain Extracted from MEG Signals

  • Andreas A. Ioannides
  • Lichan Liu
  • Dionyssios Theofilou
  • Jürgen Dammers
  • Tom Burne
  • TimAmbler Ambler
  • Steven Rose
Article

Abstract

The magnetoencephalography (MEG) signal was recorded while subjects watched a video containing separate blocks of affective and cognitive advertisements and recalled slides extracted from the video a day later. An earlier behavioural study using the same video material showed that the affective advertisements were better recalled and that administration of propranolol (a beta-adrenergic blocker) abolished this effect. Magnetic field tomography (MFT) was used to extract tomographic estimates of activity millisecond by millisecond from the continuous MEG signal. Statistically significant differences between affective and cognitive blocks were identified in posterior and prefrontal areas. Cognitive blocks produced stronger activity in posterior parietal areas and superior prefrontal cortex in all three subjects. Affective blocks modulated activity in orbitofrontal and retrosplenial cortex, amygdala and brainstem. Individual contributions to the statistical maps were traced in real time from milliseconds to many seconds. Time-locked responses from the recall session were used to compare average and single trial MFT solutions and to combine activations from all subjects into a common anatomical space. The last step produced statistically significant increases in occipital and inferior ventral cortex between 100 and 200 ms compared to a prestimulus baseline.

magnetoencephalography (MEG) orbitofrontal cortex retrosplenial cortex superior prefrontal cortex affective and cognitive stimuli magnetic field tomography (MFT) Statistical measures 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adolphs, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D. and Damasio, A. Cortical systems for the recognition of emotion in facial expressions. J. Neurosci., 1996, 6: 7678-7687.Google Scholar
  2. Ambler, T. and Burne, T. The impact of affect on memory of advertising. J. Advertising Research, 1999, 39(2): 25-34.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, S.W., Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D. and Damasio, A.R. Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 1999, 2: 1032-1036.Google Scholar
  4. Cahill, L., Haier, R.J., Fallon, J., Alkire, M.T., Tang, C., Keator, D., Wu, J. and McGaugh, L. Amygdala activity at encoding correlated with long-term free recall of emotional information. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1996, 93: 8016-8021.Google Scholar
  5. Cahill, L. and McGaugh, L. Mechanisms of emotional arousal and lasting declarative memory. TINS, 1998, 21: 294-299.Google Scholar
  6. Carpenter, A.F., Georgopoulos, A.P. and Pellizzer, G. Motor cortical encoding of serial order in a context-recall task. Science, 1999, 283: 1752-1757.Google Scholar
  7. Cipolloni, P.B. and Pandya, D.N. Cortical connections of the frontoparietal opercular areas in the rhesus monkey. J. Comp. Neurol., 1999, 403: 431-458.Google Scholar
  8. Damasio, A.R. Descartes's Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain, Grosset and Putnam, New York, 1994.Google Scholar
  9. Drevets, W.C., Price, J.L., Simpson. J.R. Jr, Toodd, R.D., Reich, T., Vannier, M. and Raichle, M.E. Subgenual prefrontal cortex abnormalities in mood disorders. Nature, 1997, 386: 824-827.Google Scholar
  10. Gray, J.M., Young, A.W., Barker, W.A., Curtis, A. and Gibson, D. Impaired recognition of disgust in Huntington's disease gene carriers. Brain, 1997, 120: 2018-2029.Google Scholar
  11. Halgren, E., Walter, R.D., Cherlow, D.G. and Crandall, P.H. Mental phenomena evoked by electrical stimulation of the human hippocampal formation and amygdala. Brain, 1978, 101: 83-117.Google Scholar
  12. Hamann, S.B., Ely, T.D., Grafton, S.T. and Kilts, C.D. Amygdala activity related to enhanced memory. Nature Neuroscience, 1999, 2: 1032-1036.Google Scholar
  13. Hämäläinen, M., Hari, R., IImoniemi, R.J., Knuutila, J. and Lounasmaa, O.V. Magnetoencephalography — theory, instrumentation and applications to non-invasive studies of the working human brain. Reviews of Modern Physics, 1993, 65: 413-497.Google Scholar
  14. Ioannides, A.A., Bolton, J.P.R. and Clarke, C.J.S. Continuous probabilistic solutions to the biomagnetic inverse problem. Inverse Problem, 1990, 6: 523-542.Google Scholar
  15. Ioannides, A.A. Estimates brain activity using magnetic field tomography and large scale communication within the brain. In: M.W. Ho, F.A. Popp and U. Warnke (Eds.), Bioelectrodynamics and Biocommunication, World Scientific, Singapore, 1994: 319-353.Google Scholar
  16. Ioannides, A.A., Liu, M.J., Liu, L.C., Bamidis, P.D., Hellstrand, E. and Stephan, K.M. Magnetic field tomography of cortical and deep processes: examples of “real-time mapping” of averaged and single trial MEG signals. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 1995, 20(2): 161-175.Google Scholar
  17. Jahn, O., Cichocki, A., Ioannides, A.A. and Amari, S. Identification and elimination of artefacts from MEG signals using extended independent component analysis. In: T. Yoshimoto, M. Kotani, S. Kuriki, H. Karibe and N. Nakasato (Eds.), Recent Advances in Biomagnetism, Tohoku University Press, Sendai, 1999: 224-228.Google Scholar
  18. LeDoux, J.E. The Emotional Brain, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1996.Google Scholar
  19. Liu, L.C. and Ioannides, A.A. A correlation study of averaged and single trial MEG signals: the average describes multiple histories each in a different set of single trials. Brain Topography, 1996, 8(4): 385-396.Google Scholar
  20. Liu, L.C., Ioannides, A.A. and Müller-Gärtner, H.W. Bi-hemispheric study of single trial MEG signals of the human auditory cortex. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol., 1998, 106: 64-78.Google Scholar
  21. Liu, L.C., Ioannides, A.A. and Streit, M. Single trial analysis of neurophysiological correlates of the recognition of complex objects and facial expressions of emotion. Brain Topography, 1999, 11: 291-303.Google Scholar
  22. Maddock, R.J. The retrosplenial cortex and emotion: new insights from functional neuroimaging of the human brain. TINS, 1999, 22: 310-316.Google Scholar
  23. Morris, R., Petrides, M. and Pandya, D.N. Architecture and connections of theretrosplenial area 30 in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Eur. J. Neurosci., 1999, 11: 2506-2518.Google Scholar
  24. Philips, M.L, Young, A.W., Senior, C., Brammer, M., Andrew, C., Calder, A.J. et al. A specific neural substrate for perceiving facial expressions of disgust. Nature, 1997, 389: 495-498.Google Scholar
  25. Rizzolatti, G. and Arbib, A. Language within our grasp. Trends Neurosc., 1998, 21: 188-194.Google Scholar
  26. Rolls, E.T. The Brain and Emotion, Oxford University Press Inc., New York, 1999.Google Scholar
  27. Sprengelmeyer, R., Young, A.W., Calder, A.J., Karnat, A., Lange, H., Homberg, V., Perrett, D.I. and Rowland, D. Perception of faces and emotions: loss of disgust in Huntington's disease. Brain, 1996, 119: 1647-1665.Google Scholar
  28. Strupp, J. P. STIMULATE: a GUI based fMRI analysis software package. NeuroImage 3, S607, June 1996.Google Scholar
  29. Taylor, J.G., Ioannides, A.A. and Müller-Gärtner, H.W. Mathematical analysis of lead field expansions. IEEE Trans. Med. Imag., 1999, 18: 151-163.Google Scholar
  30. Turken, A.U. and Swick, D. Response selection in the human anterior cingulate cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 1999, 2: 920-924.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas A. Ioannides
    • 1
  • Lichan Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dionyssios Theofilou
    • 1
  • Jürgen Dammers
    • 3
  • Tom Burne
    • 4
  • TimAmbler Ambler
    • 5
  • Steven Rose
    • 4
  1. 1.Lab. for Human Brain DynamicsBrain Science Institute (BSI), RIKEN, Wako-shiSaitamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  3. 3.Institute of MedicineResearch Centre JülichJülichGermany
  4. 4.Department of BiologyThe Open UniversityMilton KeynesUK
  5. 5.London Business SchoolLondonUK

Personalised recommendations