Advertisement

Journal of World Prehistory

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 65–119 | Cite as

The Not So Peaceful Civilization: A Review of Maya War

  • David Webster
Article

Abstract

The first Maya encountered by Europeans in the early sixteenth century were exceedingly warlike, but by the 1940s the earlier Classic Maya (AD 250–1000) were widely perceived as an inordinately peaceful civilization. Today, in sharp contrast, conflict is seen as integral to Maya society throughout its history. This paper defines war, reviews the evidence for it in the Maya archaeological record, and shows how and why our ideas have changed so profoundly. The main emphasis is on the Classic period, with patterns of ethnohistorically documented war serving as a baseline. Topics include the culture history of conflict, strategy and tactics, the scope and range of operations, war and the political economy, and the intense status rivalry war of the eighth and ninth centuries AD that contributed to the collapse of Classic civilization. Unresolved issues such as the motivations for war, its ritual vs. territorial aims, and sociopolitical effects are discussed at length.

Maya civilization war Maya archaeology political economy status rivalry 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Andrews, E. W. V., and Fash, B. (1992). Continuity and change in a royal Maya residential complex at Copán. Ancient Mesoamerica 3(1): 63–87.Google Scholar
  2. Armillas, P. (1951). Mesoamerican fortifications. Antiquity 25: 77–86.Google Scholar
  3. Aveni, A., and Hotaling, L. (1994). Monumental inscriptions and the observational basis of Maya planetary astronomy. Archaeoastronomy: Supplement to the Journal for the History of Astronomy 19: 21–53.Google Scholar
  4. Ball, J. (1977). The rise of the northern Maya chiefdoms. In Adams, R. E. W. (ed.), The Origins of Maya Civilization, School of American Research, Santa Fe, pp. 101–132.Google Scholar
  5. Ball, J. (1993). Pottery, potters, palaces, and polities: Some socioeconomic and political implications of Late Classic Maya ceramic industries. In Sabloff, J., and Hernderson, J. (eds.), Lowland Maya Civilization in the Eighth Century AD, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, pp. 243–272.Google Scholar
  6. Ball, J., and Taschek, J. (1991). Late Classic Lowland Maya political organization and central place analysis: New insights from the upper Belize Valley. Ancient Mesoamerica 2: 149–165.Google Scholar
  7. Baudez, C. F. (1994). Maya Sculpture of Copán, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
  8. Becker, M. (1976). Preists, peasants, and ceremonial centers: The intellectual history of a model. In Hammond, N., and Willey, G. R. (eds.), Maya Archaeology and Ethnohistory, University of Texas Press, Austin, pp. 3–20.Google Scholar
  9. Bey, G., III, Hanson, C., and Ringle, W. M. (1997). Classic to Postclassic at Ek Balam, Yucatan: Architectural and ceramic evidence for defining the transition. Latin American Antiquity 8(3): 237–254.Google Scholar
  10. Boone, E. (2000). Stories in Red and Black, University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  11. Byland, B., and Pohl, J. (1994). In the Realm of 8 Deer, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
  12. Casten, J., and Hugh-Jones, S. (1995). About the House, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  13. Chase, A., and Chase, D. (1989). The investigation of Classic Period Maya warfare at Caracol, Belize. Mayob 5: 5–18.Google Scholar
  14. Chase, A., and Chase, D. (eds.). (1994). Details in the Archaeology of Caracol, Belize, Monograph 7, Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  15. Chase, A., and Chase, D. (1996). A mighty Maya nation: How Caracol built an empire by cultivating its ‘middle class.' Archaeology 49: 66–72.Google Scholar
  16. Chase, A., and Chase, D. (1998). Late Classic Maya political structure, polity size, and warfare arenas. In Ruiz, A. C., Marquinez, Y. F., Campillo, J. M. G., Ponce de Leon, J. I., Garcia-Gallo, A. L., and Sanz Castro, L. T. (eds.), Anatomía de una Civilizació n, Sociedad Espanola de Estudios Mayas, Madrid, pp. 11–29.Google Scholar
  17. Child, M. B. (1999). Classic Maya warfare and its sociopolitical implications. Paper presented the 1999 Palenque Mesa Redonda, Palenque, Mexico.Google Scholar
  18. Coe, M, (1962). Mexico, Frederick A. Praeger, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Coe, M. (1966). The Maya, Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  20. Coe, M. (1992). Breaking the Maya Code, Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  21. Cortés, H. (1986). Letters from Mexico, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  22. Culbert, T. P. (ed.) (1991). Classic Maya Political History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  23. Culbert, T. P., and Rice, D. S. (eds.) (1990). Precolumbian Population History in the Maya Lowlands, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  24. Demarest, A, (1978). Interregional warfare and situational ethics. In Giardino, M., Edmonson, B., and Creamer, W. (eds.), Codex Wauchope: A Tribute Roll, Human Mosaic, Tulane University, New Orleans, pp. 101–111.Google Scholar
  25. Demarest, A. (1993). Violent saga of a Maya kingdom. National Geographic Magazine 183(2): 95–111.Google Scholar
  26. Demarest, A., O'Mansky, M., Woolley, C., Van Tuerenhout, D., Inomata, T., Palka, J., and Escobedo, H. (1997). Classic Maya defensive systems and warfare in the Petexbatú n region: Archaeological evidence and interpretations. Ancient Mesoamerica 8: 229–254.Google Scholar
  27. Diaz, B. (1963). The Conquest of New Spain, Penguin Books, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  28. Dillon, B. J. (1982). Bound prisoners in Maya art. Journal of New World Archaeology 5: 24–45.Google Scholar
  29. Edgerton, R. (1995). The Fall of the Asante Empire, Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Farris, W. W. (1999). Japan to 1300. In Raaflaub, K., and Rosenstein, N. (eds.), War and Society in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 47–70.Google Scholar
  31. Fash, W. (1989). The sculptural fac¸ade of structure 9N-82: Content, form, and significance. In Webster, D. (ed.), The House of the Bacabs, Copán, Honduras, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, pp. 41–72.Google Scholar
  32. Fash, W. (1991). Scribes, Warriors, and Kings, Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  33. Fedick, S. (ed.) (1996). The Managed Mosaic, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
  34. Flannery, T. (1998). Throwim Way Leg, Grover Press, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Fowler, W. (1984). Late Preclassic mortuary patterns and evidence for human sacrifice at Chalchuapa, El Salvador. American Antiquity 49: 603–618.Google Scholar
  36. Fox, J. (1978). Quiche Conquest, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  37. Fox, R. (977). Urban Anthropology, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  38. Freidel, D. (1986a). The monumental architecture. In Robertson, R., and Freidel, D. (eds.), Archaeology at Cerros, Belize, Central America, Vol. 1. An Interim Report, Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas, pp. 1–22.Google Scholar
  39. Freidel, D. (1986b). Maya warfare: An example of peer-polity interaction. In Renfrew, C., and Cherry, J. (eds.), Peer-Polity Interaction and Sociopolitical Change, Cambridge University Press, London, pp. 93–108.Google Scholar
  40. Freidel, D., and Schele, L. (1988). Kingship and power in the Late Preclassic Maya Lowlands. American Anthropologist 90(3): 547–567.Google Scholar
  41. Freidel, D., Schele, L., and Parker, J. (1993). Maya Cosmos, William Morrow, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Freidel, D., Suhler, C. K., and Palma, C. R. (1998). Termination ritual deposits at Yaxuná. In Mock, S. B. (ed.), The Sowing and the Dawning, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 135–146.Google Scholar
  43. Fried, M. (1967). The Evolution of Political Society, Random House, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Hamblin, R. L., and Pitcher, B. L. (1980). The Classic Maya collapse: Testing class conflict theories. American Antiquity 45(2): 46–67.Google Scholar
  45. Hammond, N., Tortellot, G., Donaghey, S., and Clarke, A. (1998). No slow dusk: Maya urban development and decline at La Milpa, Belize. Antiquity 72(278): 831–837.Google Scholar
  46. Hanson, R. (1998). Continuity and disjunction: The Pre-Classic antecedents of Classic Maya architecture. In Houston, S. (ed.), Function and Meaning in Classic Maya Architecture, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, pp. 49–122.Google Scholar
  47. Harrison, P. (1999). The Lords of Tikal, Thames and Hudson, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Hassig, R. (1992). War and Society in Ancient Mesoamerica, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  49. Hassig, R. (1999). The Aztec world. In Raaflaub, K., and Rosenstein, N. (eds.), War and Society in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 361–388.Google Scholar
  50. Holley, G. R. (1983). Ceramic Change at Piedras Negras, Guatemala, Ph.D. dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.Google Scholar
  51. Hopkins, N. (1988). Classic Mayan kinship systems: Epigraphic and ethnographic evidence for patrilineality. Estudios de Cultura Maya 17: 87–121.Google Scholar
  52. Hotaling, L. (1995). A reply to Werner Nahm. Maya warfare and the Venus year. Mexicon 17(2): 32–37.Google Scholar
  53. Houston, S. (1987). The Inscriptions and Monumental Art of Dos Pilas, Guatemala, Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  54. Houston, S. (1993). Hieroglyphics and History at Dos Pilas: Dynastic Politics of the Classic Maya, University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  55. Houston, S. (ed.) (1998). Function and Meaning in Classic Maya Architecture, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  56. Houston, S., and Stuart, D. (1989). The wayglyph: Evidence for “co-essences” among the Classic Maya. Research Reports on Ancient Maya Writing 30, Center for Maya Research, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  57. Houston, S., and Stuart, D. (1996). Of gods, glyphs, and kings: Divinity and rulership among the Classic Maya. Antiquity 70(268): 289–312.Google Scholar
  58. Houston, S., Robertson, J., and Stuart, D. (2000). The language of Classic Maya inscriptions. Current Anthropology 41(3): 231–256.Google Scholar
  59. Inomata, T. (1995). Archaeological Investigations at the Fortified Center of Aguateca, El Petén, Guatemala: Implications for the Study of the Classic Maya Collapse, Ph.D. dissertation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.Google Scholar
  60. Inomata, T. (1997). The last day of a fortified Classic Maya center. Ancient Mesoamerica 8(2): 337–351.Google Scholar
  61. Inomata, T., and Stiver, L. (1998). Floor assemblages from burned structures at Aguateca, Guatemala: A study of Classic Maya households. Journal of Field Archaeology 25(4): 431–452.Google Scholar
  62. Jones, G. D. (1998). The Conquest of the Last Maya Kingdom, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.Google Scholar
  63. Keightley, D. (1999). The Shang: China's first historical dynasty. In Lowe, M., and Shaugnessy, E. L. (eds.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 232–291.Google Scholar
  64. Kirch, P. (1984). The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  65. Kirch, P. (1990). The evolution of sociopolitical complexity in prehistoric Hawaíi: An assessment of the archaeological evidence. Journal of World Prehistory 4: 311–345.Google Scholar
  66. Kowalski, J., and Dunning, N. (1999). The architecture of Uxmal. In Kowalski, J. (ed.), Mesoamerican Architecture as Cultural Symbol, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 274–297.Google Scholar
  67. Landa, D. (1941). Landa's Relacio´n de Las Cosas de Yucatan (edited and annotated by Tozzer, A. M.), Papers of the Peabody Museum, Vol. 17, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  68. Laporte, J. P., and Fialko, W. C. (1990). New perspectives on old problems: Dynastic references for the Early Classic at Tikal. In Clancy, F. S., and Harrison, P. D. (eds.), Vision and Revision in Maya Studies, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 33–66.Google Scholar
  69. Lothrop, S. K. (1924). Tulum: An archaeological study of the east coast of Yucatan. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 335, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  70. Lucero, L. J. (1999). Classic Lowland Maya political organization: A review. Journal of World Prehistory 13: 211–263.Google Scholar
  71. Lundell, C. L. (1937). The Vegetation of Petén, Publication 478, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  72. Marcus, J. (1992a). Political fluctuations in Mesoamerica. National Geographic Research and Exploration 8(4): 392–411.Google Scholar
  73. Marcus, J. (1992b). Mesoamerican Writing Systems, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  74. Marcus, J. (1993). Ancient Maya political organization. In Sabloff, J., and Henderson, J. (eds.), Lowland Maya Civilization of the Eighth Century AD, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, pp. 111–184.Google Scholar
  75. Martin, S., and Grube, N. (1995). Maya superstates. Archaeology 48(6): 41–46.Google Scholar
  76. Matheny, R. (1986). Investigations at El Mirador, Petén, Guatemala. National Geographic Research 2: 332–353.Google Scholar
  77. Mathews, P. (1991). Classic Maya emblem glyphs. In Patrick, T. P. (ed.), Classic Maya Political History, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, pp. 19–29.Google Scholar
  78. Mathews, P., and Willey, G. R. (1991). Prehistoric polities of the Pasió n region: Hieroglyphic texts and their archaeological settings. In Patrick, T. P. (ed.), Classic Maya Political History, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, pp. 30–72.Google Scholar
  79. McAnany, P. (1995). Living with the Ancestors, University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  80. Means, P. A. (1977). The philosophic interrelationship between Middle American and Andean religions. In Hay, C. L., Linton, R., Lothrop, S. K., Shapiro, H., and Vaillant, G. C. (eds.), The Maya and Their Neighbors, Dover, New York, pp. 430–440. (Original 1940.)Google Scholar
  81. Miller, M. (1986). The Murals of Bonampak, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  82. Miller, M. (1999). Maya Art and Architecture, Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  83. Mock, S. B. (1998). The defaced and the forgotten: Decapitation and flaying/mutilation as a termination event at Colha. In Mock, S. B. (ed.), The Sowing and the Dawning, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 113–124.Google Scholar
  84. Morley, S. G. (1946). The Ancient Maya, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.Google Scholar
  85. Nahm, W. (1994). Maya warfare and the Venus year. Mexicon 16(1): 6–10.Google Scholar
  86. Pendergast, D. (1985). Lamanai, Belize: An updated view. In Chase, A., and Rice, P. (eds.), The Lowland Maya Postclassic, University of Texas Press, Austin, pp. 91–103.Google Scholar
  87. Pendergast, D. (1986). Stability through change: Lamanai, Belize, from the ninth to the seventeenth century. In Sabloff, J., and Andrews, E. W. V. (eds.), Late Lowland Maya Civilization, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 223–250.Google Scholar
  88. Pohl, M., and Pohl, J. (1994). Cycles of conflict: Political factionalism in the Maya Lowlands. In Brumfiel, E., and Fox, J. (eds.), Factional Competition and Political Development in the New World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 138–157.Google Scholar
  89. Pollock, H. E. D., and Stromsvik, G. (1953). Chacchob, Yucatan. Publication 6, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  90. Puleston, D., and Callender, D. W., Jr. (1967). Defensive earthworks at Tikal. Expedition 9(3): 40–48.Google Scholar
  91. Proskouriakoff, T. (1961). The lords of the Maya realm. Expedition Fall: 14–21.Google Scholar
  92. Raaflaub, K. (1999). Archaic and classical Greece. In Raaflaub, K., and Rosenstein, N. (eds.), War and Society in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 71–104.Google Scholar
  93. Raaflaub, K., and Rosenstein, N. (eds.) (1999). War and Society in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  94. Rands, R. (1952). Some Evidences of Warfare in Classic Maya Art, Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, New York.Google Scholar
  95. Reents-Budet, D. (1994). Painting the Maya Universe: Royal Ceramics of the Classic Period, Duke University Press, London.Google Scholar
  96. Restall, M. (1997). The Maya World: Yucatec Culture and Society, 1550–1850, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.Google Scholar
  97. Restall, M. (1998). Maya Conquistador, Beacon Press, Boston.Google Scholar
  98. Rice, D. (1993). Eighth-century physical geography, environment, and natural resources in the Maya Lowlands. In Sabloff, J., and Henderson, J. (eds.), Lowland Maya Civilization in the Eighth Century AD, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, pp. 11–63.Google Scholar
  99. Ringle, W. M., and Andrews, E. W. V. (1990). The demography of Komchen, an early Maya town. In Culbert, T. P., and Rice, D. S. (eds.), Precolumbian Population History in the Maya Lowlands, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  100. Robles, F., and Andrews, A. (1985). A review and synthesis of recent Postclassic archaeology in northern Yucatan. In Sabloff, J., and Andrews, E. W. V. (eds.), Late Lowland Maya Civilization, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 53–98.Google Scholar
  101. Roys, R. (1943). The Indian Background of Colonial Yucatan, Publication 548; Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  102. Roys, R. (1957). The Political Geography of the Yucatan Maya, Publication 613, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  103. Ruz L., A. (1973). El Templo de las Inscripciones, Palenque. Colleció n Cientifica Arquelogia 7, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico City.Google Scholar
  104. Sabloff, J., and Henderson, J. (eds.) (1993). Lowland Civilization of the Eighth Century AD, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  105. Sabloff, J., and Willey, G. R. (1967). The collapse of Maya civilization in the southern Lowlands: A consideration of history and process. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 23: 311–336.Google Scholar
  106. Sanders, W. T. (1977). Environmental hererogeneity and the evolution of Lowland Maya civilization. In Adams, R. E. W. (ed.), The Origins of Maya Civilization, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 287–298.Google Scholar
  107. Sanders, W. T. (1989). Household, lineage, and state at eighth-century Copán, Honuduras. In Webster, D. (ed.), The House of the Bacabs, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, pp. 89–105.Google Scholar
  108. Sanders, W. T. (1992). Ranking and stratification in prehispanic Mesoamerica. In Chase, D. Z., and Chase, A. F. (eds.), Mesoamerican Elites, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, pp. 278–291.Google Scholar
  109. Sanders, W. T., and Webster, D. (1988). TheMesoamerican urban tradition. American Anthropologist 90: 521–46.Google Scholar
  110. Schele, L. (1984). Human sacrifice among the Classic Maya. In Boone, E. (ed.), Ritual Human Sacrifice in Mesoamerica, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, pp. 6–48.Google Scholar
  111. Schele, L., and Freidel, D. (1990). A Forest of Kings, William Morrow, New York.Google Scholar
  112. Schele, L., and Mathews, P. (1991). Royal visits and other intersite relationships among the Classic Maya. In Culbert, T. P. (ed.), Classic Maya Political History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 26–252.Google Scholar
  113. Schele, L., and Miller, M. (1986). The Blood of Kings, Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, TX.Google Scholar
  114. Shaughnessy, E. L. (1990). Western Zhou history. In Lowe, M., and Shaugnessy, E. L. (eds.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 292–352.Google Scholar
  115. Shook, E. (1952). TheGreat Wall of Mayapán, Current Report Number 2, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  116. Spinden, H. J. (1975). A Study of Maya Art, Dover, New York. (Original 1913.)Google Scholar
  117. Stephens, J. L. (1949). Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatán, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ. (Original 1841.)Google Scholar
  118. Storey, R. (1992). The children of Copán. Ancient Mesoamerica 3(1): 161–168.Google Scholar
  119. Storey, R. (1997). Individual frailty, children of privilege, and stress in Late Classic Copán. In Whittington, S. L., and Reed, D. M. (eds.), Bones of the Maya, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 116–126.Google Scholar
  120. Stuart, D. (1993). Historical inscriptions and the Maya collapse. In Sabloff, J., and Henderson, J. S. (eds.), Lowland Maya Civilization in the Eighth Century AD, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, pp. 321–354.Google Scholar
  121. Stuart, D. (1995). A Study of Maya Inscriptions, Ph.D. dissertation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.Google Scholar
  122. Stuart, D. (1998). The arrival of strangers. Precolumbian Art Research Institute Newsletter 15: 10–12.Google Scholar
  123. Suhler, C., and Freidel, D. (1998). Life and death in a Maya war zone. Archaeology 51(3): 28–34.Google Scholar
  124. Thompson, J. E. S. (1954). The Rise and Fall of Maya Civilization, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
  125. Viel, R. (1999). The pectorals of Altar Q and Structure 11: An interpretation of the political organization at Copán, Honduras. Latin American Antiquity 10(4): 377–399.Google Scholar
  126. Webster, D. (1972). Defensive Earthworks at Becan, Campeche, Mexico, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  127. Webster, D. (1975). Warfare and the origin of the state. American Antiquity 40(4): 464–471.Google Scholar
  128. Webster, D. (1976a). Lowland Maya fortifications. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 120(5): 361–371.Google Scholar
  129. Webster, D. (1976b). Defensive Earthworks at Becán, Campeche, Mexico: Implications for yMaya Warfare, Publication 41, Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  130. Webster, D. (1977). Warfare and the evolution of Maya civilization. In Adams, R. E. W. (ed.), The Origins of Maya Civilization, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 335–372.Google Scholar
  131. Webster, D. (1979). Cuca, Chacchob, Dzonot Ake: Three walled sites of the northern Maya lowlands. Occasional Papers in Anthropology 11, Department of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park.Google Scholar
  132. Webster, D. (1985). Surplus, labor and stress in Late Classic Maya society. Journal of Anthropological Research 41(4): 375–399.Google Scholar
  133. Webster, D. (1993). The study of Maya warfare: What it tells us about the Maya and about Maya archaeology. In Sabloff, J., and Henderson, J. (eds.), Lowland Maya Civilization in the Eighth Century AD, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, pp. 415–444.Google Scholar
  134. Webster, D. (1998). Warfare and status rivalry: Lowland Maya and Polynesian comparisons. In Feinman, G., and Marcus, J. (eds.), Archaic States, School of American Research, Santa Fe, pp. 311–352.Google Scholar
  135. Webster, D. (1999a). Ancient Maya warfare. In Raaflaub, K., and Rosenstein, N. (eds.), War and Society in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 333–360.Google Scholar
  136. Webster, D. (1999b). The archaeology of Copán, Honduras. Journal of Anthropological Research 7(1): 1–53.Google Scholar
  137. Webster, D., Sanders, W. T., and van Rossum, P. (1992). A simulation of Copán population history and its implications. Ancient Mesoamerica 3(1): 185–197.Google Scholar
  138. Webster, D., Freter, A., and Nancy, G. (2000). Copán: The Rise and Fall of a Classic Maya Kingdom, Harcourt Brace, Fort Worth, TX.Google Scholar
  139. Whittington, S. (1989). Characteristics of Demography and Disease in Low-Status Maya from Classic Period Copán, Honduras, Ph.D. dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park.Google Scholar
  140. Wingard, J. (1996). Interactions between demographic processes and soil resources in the Copán Valley, Honduras. In Fedick, S. (ed.), The Managed Mosaic, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, pp. 207–235.Google Scholar
  141. Wolf, E. R. (1999). Envisioning Power, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  142. Yates, R. (1999). Early China. In Raaflaub, K., and Rosenstein, N. (eds.), War and Society in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 7–46.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Webster
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity Park

Personalised recommendations