Advertisement

Brain Topography

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 169–193 | Cite as

Brain Electrical Activity Evoked by Mental Formation of Auditory Expectations and Images

  • Petr Janata
Article

Abstract

Evidence for the brain's derivation of explicit expectancies in an ongoing sensory context has been well established by studies of the P300 and processing negativity (PN) components of the event-related potential (ERP). “Emitted potentials” generated in the absence of sensory input by unexpected stimulus omissions also exhibit a P300 component and provide another perspective on patterns of brain activity related to the processing of expectancies. The studies described herein extend earlier emitted potential findings in several aspects. First, high-density (128-channel) EEG recordings are used for topographical mapping of emitted potentials. Second, the primary focus is on emitted potential components preceding the P300, i.e. those components that are more likely to resemble ERP components associated with sensory processing. Third, the dependence of emitted potentials on attention is assessed. Fourth, subjects' knowledge of the structure of an auditory stimulus sequence is modulated so that emitted potentials can be compared between conditions that are identical in physical aspects but differ in terms of subjects' expectations regarding the sequence structure. Finally, a novel task is used to elicit emitted potentials, in which subjects explicitly imagine the continuations of simple melodies. In this task, subjects mentally complete melodic fragments in the appropriate tempo, even though they know with absolute certainty that no sensory stimulus will occur. Emitted potentials were elicited only when subjects actively formed expectations or images. The topographies of the initial portion of the emitted potentials were significantly correlated with the N100 topography elicited by corresponding acoustic stimuli, but uncorrelated with the topographies of corresponding silence control periods.

Emitted potential Imagery ERP N100 High-density EEG Superior temporal gyrus 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Besson, M. and Faïta, F. An event-related potential (ERP) study of musical expectancy: Comparison of musicians with nonmusicians. JEP: Human Percept. and Perf., 1995, 21: 1278-1296.Google Scholar
  2. Besson, M., Faita, F., Czternasty, C. and Kutas, M. What's in a pause: Event-related potential analysis of temporal disruptions in written and spoken sentences. Biological Psychology, 1997, 46: 3-23.Google Scholar
  3. CarrollPhelan, B. and Hampson, P.J. Multiple components of the perception of musical sequences: A cognitive neuroscience analysis and some implications for auditory imagery. Music Perception, 1996, 13: 517-561.Google Scholar
  4. Cowan, N. Attention and Memory. Oxford University Press, New York, 1995.Google Scholar
  5. Edelman, G.M. The remembered present: a biological theory of consciousness. Basic Books, New York, 1989Google Scholar
  6. Galan, L., Biscay, R., Rodriguez, J.L., Perez-Abalo, M.C. and Rodriguez, R. Testing topographic differences between event related brain potentials by using non-parametric combinations of permutation tests [published erratum appears in Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1998 Nov; 107(5): 380–381]. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1997, 102: 240-247.Google Scholar
  7. Giard, M.H., Perrin, F., Pernier, J. and Peronnet, F. Several attention-related wave forms in auditory areas: a topographic study. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1988, 69: 371-384.Google Scholar
  8. Grossberg, S. How does a brain build a cognitive code? Psychol. Rev., 1980, 87: 1-51.Google Scholar
  9. Halpern, A.R. and Zatorre, R.J. When that tune runs through your head: a PET investigation of auditory imagery for familiar melodies. Cereb. Cortex, 1999, 9: 697-704.Google Scholar
  10. Hays, W.L. Statistics. (4th ed.). Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Orlando, 1988.Google Scholar
  11. Hillyard, S.A. and Picton, T.W. On and off components in the auditory evoked potential. Percept. Psychophys., 1978, 24: 391-398.Google Scholar
  12. Janata, P. ERP measures assay the degree of expectancy violation of harmonic contexts in music. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 1995, 7: 153-164.Google Scholar
  13. Joutsiniemi, S.L. and Hari, R. Omissions of auditory-stimuli may activate frontal-cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience, 1989, 1: 524-528.Google Scholar
  14. Kosslyn, S.M. Image and Brain. The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1994.Google Scholar
  15. Kosslyn, S.M., Alpert, N.M., Thompson, W.L., Maljkovic, V., Weise, S.B., Chabris, C.F., Hamilton, S.E., Rauch, S.L. and Buonanno, F.S. Visual mental imagery activates topographically organized visual cortex: PET investigations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 1993, 5: 263-287.Google Scholar
  16. Le Bihan, D., Turner, R., Zeffiro, T.A., Cuenod, C.A., Jezzard, P. and Bonnerot, V. Activation of human primary visual cortex during visual recall: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1993, 90: 11802-11805.Google Scholar
  17. Liegeois-Chauvel, C., Musolino, A., Badier, J.M., Marquis, P. and Chauvel, P. Evoked potentials recorded from the auditory cortex in man: evaluation and topography of the middle latency components. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1994, 92: 204-214.Google Scholar
  18. Mellet, E., Petit, L., Mazoyer, B., Denis, M. and Tzourio, N. Reopening the mental imagery debate: lessons from functional anatomy. Neuroimage, 1998, 8: 129-139.Google Scholar
  19. Näätänen, R. Processing negativity: an evoked-potential reflection of selective attention. Psychol. Bull., 1982, 92: 605-640.Google Scholar
  20. Näätänen, R. The role of attention in auditory information processing as revealed by event-related potentials and other brain measures of cognitive function. Behav. Brain Sci., 1990, 13: 201-288.Google Scholar
  21. Näätänen, R. Attention and Brain Function. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, 1992Google Scholar
  22. Näätänen, R., and Picton, T. The N1 wave of the human electric and magnetic response to sound: a review and an analysis of the component structure. Psychophysiology, 1987, 24: 375-425.Google Scholar
  23. Näätänen, R. and Winkler, I. The concept of auditory stimulus representation in cognitive neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 1999, 125: 826-859.Google Scholar
  24. Pantev, C., Bertrand, O., Eulitz, C., Verkindt, C., Hampson, S., Schuierer, G. and Elbert, T. Specific tonotopic organizations of different areas of the human auditory cortex revealed by simultaneous magnetic and electric recordings. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1995, 94: 26-40.Google Scholar
  25. Picton, T.W., Woods, D.L. and Proulx, G.B. Human auditory sustained potentials. I. The nature of the response. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1978, 45: 186-197.Google Scholar
  26. Raij, T., McEvoy, L., Makela, J.P. and Hari, R. Human auditory cortex is activated by omissions of auditory stimuli. Brain Research, 1997, 745: 134-143.Google Scholar
  27. Ruchkin, D.S. and Sutton, S. Emitted P300 potentials and temporal uncertainty. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1978, 45: 268-277.Google Scholar
  28. Ruchkin, D.S., Sutton, S. and Stega, M. Emitted P300 and slow-wave event-related potentials in guessing and detection tasks. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1980, 49: 1-14.Google Scholar
  29. Ruchkin, D.S., Sutton, S. and Tueting, P. Emitted and evoked P300 potentials and variation in stimulus probability. Psychophysiology, 1975, 12: 591-595.Google Scholar
  30. Samuel, A. Phoneme restoration. Language and Cognitive Processes, 1996, 11: 647-653.Google Scholar
  31. Samuel, A.G. Phonemic restoration: insights from a new methodology. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen., 1981a, 110: 474-494.Google Scholar
  32. Samuel, A.G. The role of bottom-up confirmation in the phonemic restoration illusion. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform., 1981b, 7: 1124-1131.Google Scholar
  33. Simson, R., Vaughan, H.G. and Ritter, W. The scalp topography of potentials associated with missing visual or auditory stimuli. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1976, 40: 33-42.Google Scholar
  34. Srinivasan, R., Nunez, P.L., Tucker, D.M., Silberstein, R.B. and Cadusch, P.J. Spatial sampling and filtering of EEG with spline laplacians to estimate cortical potentials. Brain Topogr., 1996, 8: 355-366.Google Scholar
  35. Sutton, S., Tueting, P., Zubin, J. and John, E.R. Information delivery and the sensory evoked potential. Science, 1967, 155: 1436-1439.Google Scholar
  36. Tervaniemi, M., Saarinen, J., Paavilainen, P., Danilova, N. and Näätänen, R. Temporal integration of auditory information in sensory memory as reflected by the mismatch negativity. Biol. Psychol., 1994, 38: 157-167.Google Scholar
  37. Tucker, D.M. Spatial sampling of head electrical fields: the geodesic sensor net. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1993, 87: 154-163.Google Scholar
  38. Verkindt, C., Bertrand, O., Perrin, F., Echallier, J.F. and Pernier, J. Tonotopic organization of the human auditory cortex: N100 topography and multiple dipole model analysis. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1995, 96: 143-156.Google Scholar
  39. Warren, R.M. Perceptual restoration of missing speech sounds. Science, 1970, 167: 392-393.Google Scholar
  40. Warren, R.M. Perceptual restoration of obliterated sounds. Psychol. Bull., 1984, 96: 371-383.Google Scholar
  41. Weinberg, H., Walter, W.G., Cooper, R. and Aldridge, V.J. Emitted cerebral events. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1974, 36: 449-456.Google Scholar
  42. Weinberg, H., Walter, W.G. and Crow, H.J. Intracerebral events in humans related to real and imaginary stimuli. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1970, 29: 1-9.Google Scholar
  43. Woldorff, M.G. and Hillyard, S.A. Modulation of early auditory processing during selective listening to rapidly presented tones. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1991, 79: 170-191.Google Scholar
  44. Zatorre, R.J. and Halpern, A.R. Effect of unilateral temporal-lobe excision on perception and imagery of songs. Neuropsychologia, 1993, 31: 221-232.Google Scholar
  45. Zatorre, R.J., Halpern, A.R., Perry, D.W., Meyer, E. and Evans, A.C. Hearing in the mind's ear: A PET investigation of musical imagery and perception. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 1996, 8: 29-46.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petr Janata
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Neuroscience,University of Oregon,Eugene,USA

Personalised recommendations