Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 16, Issue 5, pp 381–393

Changes in lipid class and fatty acid composition during development in pike (Esox lucius L) eggs and larvae

  • C. Desvilettes
  • G. Bourdier
  • J.C. Breton


To establish the changes which occur during embryogenesis and early larval development, eggs, yolk sac larvae and swim-up larvae of pike were examined for lipid class and fatty acid composition. At a water temperature of 15.5°C, the embryonic phase was short (6 days) and characterized by a 41.3% decline in the lipid content of eggs, accompanied by large reductions in the amount of phosphatidylcholine (41.4% decrease), sterol esters and triacylglycerols (respectively a 41.2% decrease and a 58.1% decrease), but not phosphatidylethanolamine which increased markedly (35.6%). By the time of yolk sac absorption (7 to 11 days after fertilization) the larvae remained inactive and a limited utilization of lipids was observed. Yolk sac phosphatidylcholine was selectively incorporated into larval bodies while the levels of other lipid classes remained unchanged in the yolk. When the swim bladder was filled and the swimming stage was reached (11 days to 13 days af), the yolk was completely depleted and yolk phosphatidylcholine together with yolk triacylglycerols were catabolised. Yolk phosphatidylethanolamine and yolk sterol esters were partly incorporated into the body lipids. In the subsequent swim-up larval stage (13 to 15 days af), a steady decrease in lipids was observed (41.6%). Fluctuations in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids or saturated fatty acids examined from eggs or larvae were consistent with changes in lipid classes during pike development. During yolk sac absorption, pike incorporated yolk PUFA released on hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine into the larval body. The results are discussed with reference to water temperature and in relation to the ontogenic and ecological context of pike development.

pike eggs larvae embryonic development fatty acid lipid class temperature 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References cited

  1. Atchison, G.J. 1975. Fatty acid levels in the developing brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) eggs and fry. J. Fish Res. Bd. Can. 32: 2513–2515.Google Scholar
  2. Balvay, G. 1983. L'alimentation naturelle des alevins de brochet (Esox lucius) durant leur premier mois de vie. In Le Brochet, Gestion Dans le Milieu Naturel et Élevage. pp. 179–198. Edited by R. Billard. INRA, Paris.Google Scholar
  3. Bell, J.G., Ghioni, C. and Sargent, J.R. 1994. Fatty acid composition of 10 freshwater invertebrates which are natural food organisms of Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar): a comparison with commercial diets. Aquaculture 128: 301–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Billard, R. 1995. La reproduction. In Les Carpes, Biologie et Élevage. pp. 83–123. Edited by R. Billard, INRA, Paris.Google Scholar
  5. Bouleckbache, H. 1981. Energy metabolism in fish development. Am. Zool. 1: 377–389.Google Scholar
  6. Cetta, C.M. and Capuzzo, J.M. 1982. Physiological and bio-chemical aspects of embryonic and larval development of the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Mar. Biol. 71: 327–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cowey, C.B., Bell, J.G., Knox, D., Fraser, A. and Youngson, A. 1985. Lipids and lipids antioxidant systems in developing eggs of salmon (Salmo salar). Lipids 20: 567–572.Google Scholar
  8. Dabrowski, K., Kaushik, S.J. and Luquet, P. 1984. Metabolic utilisation of body stores during the early life of whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus. J. Fish Biol. 24: 721–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis, M.W. and Olla, B.L. 1992. Comparison of growth, behavior and lipid concentrations of walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma larvae fed lipid-enriched, lipid-deficient and field collected prey. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Serie 90: 23–30.Google Scholar
  10. Desvilettes, C., Bourdier, G. and Breton, J.C. 1994. Lipid class and fatty acid composition of planktivorous larval pike (Esox lucius) living in a natural pond. Aquat. Living Res. 7: 67–77.Google Scholar
  11. Desvilettes, C., Bourdier, G. and Breton, J.C. 1997. Effect of invertebrates diets on lipids, fatty acid composition and physiological condition of pike larvae (Esox lucius). J. Applied. Ichtyol. (In press).Google Scholar
  12. Diez, J.M. and Davenport, J. 1990. Energy exchange between the yolk and embryo of dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) eggs held under normoxic, hypoxic and transient anoxic conditions. J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. 96: 825–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Drost, M.R. 1987. Relation between aiming and catch success in larval pike. Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 44: 304–315.Google Scholar
  14. Eldridge, N.B., Joseph, J.D., Tabersky, K.M. and Seaborn, G.T. 1983. Lipid and fatty acid composition of the endogenous energy sources of striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Lipids 18: 150–513.Google Scholar
  15. Ehrlich, K.F. and Muszynski, G. 1982. Effect of temperature on interactions of physiological and behavioral capacities of larval California grunion. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 60: 223–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Falk-Petersen, S., Falk-Petersen, I.B., Sargent, J.R. and Haug, T. 1986. Lipid class and fatty acid composition of egg from the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). Aquaculture 52: 207–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Falk-Petersen, S., Sargent, J.R., Fox, C., Falk-Petersen, I.B., Haug, T., Kjorsvik, E. 1989. Lipids in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) eggs from planktonic samples in Northern Norway. Mar. Biol. 1: 553–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fago, D.M. 1977. Northern pike production in managed spawning and rearing marshes. Wisc. Dept. Nat. Resour. Tech. Bull. 96, 22 p.Google Scholar
  19. Finn, R.N., Henderson, R.J. and Fyhn, H.J. 1995. Physiological energetics of developing embryos and yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). II. Lipid metabolism and enthalpy balance. Mar. Biol. 124: 371–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fyhn, H.J. and Serigstad, B. 1987. Free amino acids as energy substrate in developing eggs and larvae of the cod. Mar. Biol. 96: 335–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Folch, J.M., Less, M. and Sloane-Stanley, G.H. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226: 497–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Fraser, A.J., Sargent, J.R., Gamble, J.C. and McLachlan, P. 1987. Lipid class and fatty acid composition as indicators of the nutritional condition of larval Atlantic herring. Am. Fish. Symp. 2: 129–143.Google Scholar
  23. Fraser, A.J., Sargent, J.R. and Gamble, J.C. 1988. Changes in lipid class composition and fatty acid composition of devel-oping eggs and unfed larvae of cod (Gadus morhua). Mar. Biol. 99: 307–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hassler, T. 1982. Effect of temperature on survival of northern pike embryo and yolk-sac larvae. Prog. Fish. Cult. 44: 174–178.Google Scholar
  25. Hayes, L.W., Tinsley, I.J. and Lowry, R.R. 1973. Utilization of fatty acids by the steelhead sac-fry, Salmo gairdneri. J. comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 45: 695–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Henderson, R.J. and Tocher, D.R. 1987. The lipid composition and biochemistry of freshwater fish. Prog. Lipid Research. 26: 281–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Henderson, R.J., Park, M.T. and Sarget, J.R. 1995. The desatura-tion of 14 C-labelled polyunsaturated fatty acids by pike (Esox lucius) in vivo. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 14: 223–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Heming, T.A. and Buddington, R.K. 1988. Yolk absorption in.393 embryonic and larval fishes. In The Physiology of Developing Fish. Fish Physiology. Vol. IX, pp. 407–446. Edited by W.S. Hoar and D.J. Randall. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  29. Hokanson, K.E.F., McCormick, J.H. and Jones, B.R. 1973. Temperature requirements for embryos and larvae of the northern pike, Esox lucius Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 102: 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kamler, E. 1992. Early Life History of Fish. An Energetic Approach. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  31. Kennedy, M. 1969. Irish pike investigations. Spawning and early life history. Ir. Fish. Invest. (Ser A), 5: 4–33.Google Scholar
  32. Lamotte, M. 1971. Méthodes Statistiques en Biologie. Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  33. Lie, Ø. 1993. Changes in fatty acid composition of neutral lipids and glycero-phospholipids in developing cod eggs. In Physi-ological and Biochemical Aspects of Fish Development. pp. 330–337. Edited by B.T. Walther and F.J. Fyhn. University of Bergen.Google Scholar
  34. Lillelund, K. 1967. Versuche zur Erbrütung der Eier vom Hecht (Esox lucius) in Abhängigkeit von Temperatur und Licht. Archiv. Fisherereiwiss. 17: 95–113.Google Scholar
  35. Lindroth, A. 1946. Zur Biologie der Befruchtung und Entwicklung beim Hecht. Annu. Rep. Inst. Freshwat. Res. Drottningholm. 24: 173.Google Scholar
  36. Loefler, C.A. 1971. Water exchange in the pike egg. J. Exp. Biol. 55: 797–811.Google Scholar
  37. Mellinger, J. 1994. La flottabilité des oeufs de téléostéens. L'Ann. biol. 33: 117–138.Google Scholar
  38. Mellinger, J. 1995. L'utilisation des lipides au cours du dévelop-pement des poissons. L'Ann. Biol. 34: 137–168.Google Scholar
  39. Mita, M., Kujiwara, A., De Santis, R. and Yasumasu, I. 1994. High energy phosphate compounds in spermatozoa of the sea urchins Arbacia lixula and Paracentrotus lividus. J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 109: 269–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Moodie, G.E.E., Loadman, N.L. and Wiegand, M.D. 1989. Influ-ence of egg characteristics on survival, growth and feeding in larval walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). Can. J. Fish. Aqu. Sci. 46: 516–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mourente, G. and Odriozola, J.M. 1990. Effect of broodstock diets on total lipids and fatty acid composition of larvae of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) during yolk sac stage. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 8: 103–110.Google Scholar
  42. Nefedova, Z.A. and Lizenko, E.I. 1981. In Sravn aspekty bio-khim Ryb Nek Drugikh zhivotn VZ Akad Nauk SSSR. pp. 130–112. Edited by Siderov. Karel, USSR.Google Scholar
  43. Quessada, J. 1987. Aspects lipidiques des développements em-bryonnaires et larvaires du loup Dicentrarchus labrax, du sar Diplodus sargus, et de la daurade Sparus auratus, en relation avec les réserves endogènes. PhD Thesis Univ. S.T. Langue-doc.Google Scholar
  44. Raat, J.P. 1988. Synopsis of biological data on the northern pike. FAO Publ. Fish Synop. 30: 1–178.Google Scholar
  45. Rainuzzo, J.R., Reitan, K.I. and Jorgensen, L. 1992. Comparative study on the fatty acid and lipid composition of four marine fish larvae. J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 103: 21–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rønnestad, I., Koven, W.M., Tandler, A., Harel, M. and Fyhn, H.J. 1994. Energy metabolism during development of eggs and larvae of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Mar. Biol. 120: 187–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rønnestad, I., Finn, R.N., Lein, I. and Lie, O. 1995. Compart-mental changes in total lipid, lipid classes and their associated fatty acids in developing yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). Aquacult. Nutr. 1: 119–130.Google Scholar
  48. Ryland, J.S. 1963. The swimming speeds of plaice larvae. J. Exp. Biol. 4: 285–289.Google Scholar
  49. Schwalme, K. and MacKay, W.C. 1992. Seasonal changes in the neutral and polar lipid fatty acid content of female pike. Can. J. Zool. 70: 280–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Selman, K. and Wallace, R.A. 1989. Cellular aspects of oocyte growth in teleost. Zool. Sci. 6: 211–231.Google Scholar
  51. Tocher, D.R., Fraser, A.J., Sargent, J.R. and Gamble, J.C. 1985a. Lipid class composition during embryonic and early larval development in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus). Lipids 20: 84–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Tocher, D.R., Fraser, A.J., Sargent, J.R. and Gamble, J.G. 1985b. Fatty acid composition of phospholipids and neutral lipids during embryonic and early larval development in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus). Lipids 20: 69–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Tocher, D.R. and Sargent, J.R. 1984. Analyses of lipids and fatty acids in ripe roes of some northwest European marine fish. Lipids 19: 69–74.Google Scholar
  54. Tsukamoto, K. and Kajihara, T. 1984. On the relation between yolk absorption and swimming activity in the ayu larvae Plecoglossus altivelis. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 50: 59–61.Google Scholar
  55. Vetter, R.D., Hodson, R.E. and Arnold, C. 1983. Energy metabo-lism in a rapidly developing marine fish egg, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellata). Can. J. Fish Aqu. Sci. 40: 627–633.Google Scholar
  56. Wiegand, M.D. 1996. Utilization of yolk fatty acids by goldfish embryos and larvae. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 15(1): 21–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Desvilettes
    • 1
  • G. Bourdier
    • 1
  • J.C. Breton
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Zoologie/Protistologie, URA CNRS 1944Université Blaise PascalAubière cedexFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Biochimie médicaleFaculté de méicineLimoges cedexFrance

Personalised recommendations