Advertisement

Journal of Traumatic Stress

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 521–527 | Cite as

A Correlational Test of the Relationship Between Posttraumatic Growth, Religion, and Cognitive Processing

  • Lawrence G. Calhoun
  • Arnie Cann
  • Richard G. Tedeschi
  • Jamie McMillan
Article

Abstract

The present study examined the degree to which event related rumination, a quest orientation to religion, and religious involvement is related to posttraumatic growth. Fifty-four young adults, selected based on prescreening for experience of a traumatic event, completed a measure of event related ruminations, the Quest Scale, an index of religious participation, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. The three subscales of the Quest Scale, the two groups of rumination items (soon after event/within past two weeks), and the index of religious participation were entered in a standard multiple regression with the total score of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory as the dependent variable. The degree of rumination soon after the event and the degree of openness to religious change were significantly related to Posttraumatic Growth. Congruent with theoretical predictions, more rumination soon after the event, and greater openness to religious change were related to more posttraumatic growth. Present findings offer some confirmation of theoretical predictions, and also offer clear direction for further research on the relationships of religion, rumination, and posttraumatic growth.

trauma growth cognitions religion posttraumatic 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Affleck, G., & Tennen, H. (1996). Construing benefits from adversity: Adaptational significance and dispositional underpinning. Journal of Personality, 64, 899–922.Google Scholar
  2. Barrett, T. W., & Scott, T. B. (1989). Development of the Grief Experience Questionnaire. Suicide & Life Threatening Behavior, 19, 201–215.Google Scholar
  3. Batson, C. D., Schoenrade, P., & Ventis, W. L. (1993). Religion and the individual: A socialpsychological perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bernat, J. A., Ronfeldt, H. M., Calhoun, K. S., & Arias, H. (1998). Prevalence of traumatic events and peritraumatic predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms in a nonclinical sample of college students. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 645–664.Google Scholar
  5. Calhoun, L. G., & Tedeschi, R. G. (1998). Posttraumatic growth: Future directions. In R. G. Tedeschi, C. L. Park, & L. G. Calhoun (Eds.), Posttraumatic growth: Positive changes in the aftermath of crisis (pp. 215–238). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. Calhoun, L. G., & Tedeschi, R. G. (1999). Facilitating posttraumatic growth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  7. Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267–283.Google Scholar
  8. Greenberg, M. (1995). Cognitive processing in trauma: The role of intrusive thoughts and reappraisals. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25, 1262–1296.Google Scholar
  9. Janoff-Bulman, R. (1992). Shattered assumptions. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  10. Martin, L. M., & Tesser, A. (1996). Clarifying our thoughts. In R. S. Dyer (Ed.), Ruminative thoughts: Advances in social cognition (pp. 189–209). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  11. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., McBride, A., & Larson, J. (1997). Rumination and psychological distress among bereaved partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 855–862.Google Scholar
  12. Norris, F. (1990). Screening for traumatic stress: A scale for use in the general population. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 1704–1718.Google Scholar
  13. O'Leary, V. E., Alday, C. S., & Ickovics, J. R. (1998). Models of life change and posttraumatic growth. In R. G. Tedeschi, C. L. Park, & L. G. Calhoun (Eds.), Posttraumatic growth: Positive changes in changes in the aftermath of crisis (pp. 127–151). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. Pargament, K. I. (1997). The psychology of religion and coping. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  15. Park, C. L., Cohen, L. H., & Murch, R. (1996). Assessment and prediction of stress-related growth. Journal of Personality, 64, 71–105.Google Scholar
  16. Sanavio, E. (1988). Obsessions and compulsions: The Padua Inventory. Behavior Research and Therapy, 26, 169–177.Google Scholar
  17. Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1995). Trauma and transformation: Growing in the aftermath of suffering. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  18. Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1996). The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 455–471.Google Scholar
  19. Tennen, H., & Affleck, G. (1998). Personality and transformation in the face of adversity. In R. G. Tedeschi, C. L. Park, & L. G. Calhoun (Eds.), Posttraumatic growth: Positive changes in the aftermath of crisis (pp. 65–98). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. Wuthnow, R. (1994). Sharing the journey: Support groups and America's new quest for community. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  21. Yalom, I. D., & Lieberman, M. A. (1991). Bereavement and heightened existential awareness. Psychiatry, 54, 334–345.Google Scholar
  22. Zilberg, N. J., Weiss, D. S., & Horowitz, M. J. (1982). Impact of Event Scale: A cross-validation study and some empirical evidence supporting a conceptual model of stress response syndromes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 407–414.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence G. Calhoun
    • 1
  • Arnie Cann
    • 2
  • Richard G. Tedeschi
    • 2
  • Jamie McMillan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUNC CharlotteCharlotte
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUNC CharlotteCharlotte

Personalised recommendations