Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 58, Issue 1, pp 33–43

Tidal Influence on Spatial Dynamics of Leopard Sharks, Triakis semifasciata, in Tomales Bay, California

  • Joshua T. Ackerman
  • Matthew C. Kondratieff
  • Scott A. Matern
  • Joseph J. Cech
Article

Abstract

We used ultrasonic telemetry to determine the movement directions and movement rates of leopard sharks, Triakis semifasciata, in Tomales Bay, California. To analyze tide and time of day effects, we surgically implanted transmitters in the peritoneal cavities of one male and five female leopard sharks, which we located during summer for three to five sampling sessions lasting 12 to 24 h each. All leopard sharks showed strong movement direction patterns with tide. During incoming tides, sharks moved significantly (p<0.0001) towards the inner bay, apparently to exploit the extensive inner bay muddy littoral zones' food resources. On outgoing tides, sharks showed significant (p<0.0001) movements towards the outer bay. During high tide, there was no discernible pattern to their movements (p=0.092). Shark movement rates were significantly (p<0.0001) greater during dark periods (mean±SE: 10.5±1.0 m min−1), compared with fully lighted ones (6.7±0.5 m min−1). Movement rates of longer sharks tended to be greater than those of shorter ones (range means±SE: 5.8±0.6 m min−1 for the 91 cm shark, to 12.8±1.6 m min−1 for the 119 cm shark), but the leopard sharks' overall mean movement rate (8.1±0.5 m min−1) was slower than other (more pelagic) sharks.

movement behavior tracking elasmobranch ultrasonic telemetry 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References cited

  1. Block, B.A., D.T. Booth & F.G. Carey. 1992. Depth and temperature of the blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) observed by acoustic telemetry. Mar. Biol. 114: 175–183.Google Scholar
  2. Brill, R.W., D.B. Holts, R.K.C. Chang, S. Sullivan, H. Dewar & F.G. Carey. 1993. Vertical and horizontal movements of striped marlin (Tetrapturus audux) near the Hawaiian Islands, determined by ultrasonic telemetry, with simultaneous measurement of oceanic currents. Mar. Biol. 117: 567–574.Google Scholar
  3. Carey, F.G. & J.V. Scharold. 1990. Movements of blue sharks (Prionace glauca) in depth and course. Mar. Biol. 106: 329–342.Google Scholar
  4. Carlson, J.K., C.L. Palmer & G.R. Parsons. 1999. Oxygen consumption rate and swimming efficiency of the blacknose shark, Carcharhinus acronotus. Copeia 1999: 34–39.Google Scholar
  5. Casterlin, M.E. & W.W. Reynolds. 1979. Shark thermoregulation. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 64A: 451–453.Google Scholar
  6. Compagno, L.J.V. 1991. Government protection for the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) in South Africa. S. African J. Sci. 87: 284–285.Google Scholar
  7. Dubsky, P.A. 1974. Movement patterns and activity levels of fishes in Morro Bay, California as determined by ultrasonic tagging. M.S. Thesis, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. 86 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Graham, J.B., H. Dewar, N.C. Lai, W.R. Lowell & S.M. Arce. 1990. Aspects of shark swimming performance determined using a large water tunnel. J. Exp. Biol. 151: 175–192.Google Scholar
  9. Gruber, S.H., D.R. Nelson & J.F. Morrissey. 1988. Patterns of activity and space utilization of lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris, in a shallow Bahamian lagoon. Bull. Mar. Sci. 43: 61–76.Google Scholar
  10. Haeseker, S.L. & J.J. Cech, Jr. 1993. Food habits of the brown smoothhound shark (Mustelus henlei) from two sites in Tomales Bay. Calif. Fish and Game 79: 89–95.Google Scholar
  11. Holden, M.J. 1977. Elasmobranchs. pp. 187–215. In: J.A. Gulland (ed.) Fish Population Dynamics, 1st ed., J. Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Holland, K.N., C.G. Lowe, J.D. Peterson & A. Gill. 1992. Tracking coastal sharks with small boats: hammerhead shark pups as a case study. Aus. J. Mar. and Freshwater Res. 43: 61–66.Google Scholar
  13. Holland, K.N., B.M. Weatherbee, J.D. Peterson & C.G. Lowe. 1993. Movements and distribution of hammerhead shark pups on their natal grounds. Copeia 1993: 495–502.Google Scholar
  14. Holts, D.B. & D.W. Bedford. 1993. Horizontal and vertical movements of the shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, in the Southern California bight. Aus. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 44: 901–909.Google Scholar
  15. Hopkins, T.E. & J.J. Cech, Jr. 1994. Effect of temperature on oxygen consumption of the bat ray, Myliobatis californica (Chondrichthyes, Myliobatidae). Copeia 1994: 529–532.Google Scholar
  16. Huish, M.T. & C. Benedict 1978. Sonic tracking of dusky sharks in the Cape Fear River, North Carolina. J. Elisha Mitchell Scien. Soc. 93: 21–26.Google Scholar
  17. Klimley, A.P. 1993. Highly directional swimming by scalloped hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna lewini, and subsurface irradiance, temperature, bathymetry, and geomagnetic field. Mar. Biol. 117: 1–22.Google Scholar
  18. Kusher, D.I., S.E. Smith & G.M. Cailliet. 1992. Validated age and growth of the leopard shark, Triakis semifasciata, with comments on reproduction. Env. Biol. Fish. 35: 187–203.Google Scholar
  19. Leidy, R.A. & P.B. Moyle. 1998. Conservation status of the world's fish fauna: an overview. pp. 187–227. In: P.L. Fiedler & P.M. Kareiva (ed.) Conservation Biology for the Coming Decade, 2nd ed., Chapman & Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Love, M. 1996. Probably more that you want to know about the fishes of the Pacific coast. Really Big Press, Santa Barbara. 381 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Matern, S.A., J.J. Cech, Jr. & T.E. Hopkins. 1999. Dielmovements of bat rays, Myliobatis californica, in Tomales Bay, California: evidence for behavioral thermoregulation? Env. Biol. Fish. (in press).Google Scholar
  22. McKibben, J.N. & D.R. Nelson. 1986. Patterns of movement and grouping of gray reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, at Eniwetok, Marshall Islands. Bull. Mar. Sci. 38: 89–110.Google Scholar
  23. Medved, R.J. & J.A. Marshall. 1983. Short-term movements of young sandbar sharks, Carcharhinus plumbeus (Pisces, Carcharhinidae). Bull. Mar. Sci. 33: 87–93.Google Scholar
  24. Miller, D.J. & R.N. Lea. 1972. Guide to the coastal marine fishes of California. Calif. Fish. Bull. 157, Calif. Dept. Fish and Game, Sacramento. 249 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Morrissey, J.F. & S.H. Gruber. 1993. Habitat selection by juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris. Env. Biol. Fish. 38: 311–319.Google Scholar
  26. Nelson, D.R. 1990. Telemetry studies of sharks: a review, with applications in resource management. pp. 239–256. In: H.L. Pratt, Jr., S.H. Gruber & T. Taniuchi (ed.) Elasmobranchs as Living Resources: Advances in the Biology, Ecology, Systematics, and the Status of Fisheries, Proc. 2nd U.S.-Japan workshop, NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS 90.Google Scholar
  27. Nelson, D.R. & R.H. Johnson. 1980. Behavior of the reef sharks of Rangiroa, French Polynesia. Nat. Geog. Soc. Res. Rep. 12: 479–499.Google Scholar
  28. Nelson, D.R., J.N. McKibben, W.R. Strong, Jr., C.G. Lowe, J.A. Sisneros, D.M. Schroeder & R.J. Lavenberg. 1997. An acoustical tracking of a megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios: a crepuscular vertical migrator. Env. Biol. Fish. 49: 389–399.Google Scholar
  29. Parsons, G.R. 1990. Metabolism and swimming efficiency of the bonnethead shark, Sphyrna tiburo. Mar. Biol. 104: 363–367.Google Scholar
  30. Pittenger, G.G. 1984. Movements, distribution, feeding, and growth of the Pacific angel shark, Squatina californica, at Catalina Island, California. M.S. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach. 83 pp.Google Scholar
  31. Russo, R.A. 1975. Observations on the food habits of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) and brown smoothhounds (Mustelus henlei). Calif. Fish Game 61: 95–103.Google Scholar
  32. Scharold, J., N.C. Lai, W.R. Lowell & J.B. Graham. 1989. Metabolic rate, heart rate, and tailbeat frequency during sustained swimming in the leopard shark, Triakis semifasciata. Exp. Bio. 48: 223–230.Google Scholar
  33. Smith, S.E. 1992. Leopard shark. pp. 48–49. In: W.S. Leet, C.M. Dewees & C.W. Haugen (ed.) California's Living Marine Resources and Their Utilization, California Sea Grant Publ., Davis.Google Scholar
  34. Smith, S.E. & N.J. Abramson. 1990. Leopard shark Triakis semifasciata distribution, mortality rate, yield, and stock replenishment estimates based on tagging study in San Francisco Bay. U.S. Fish. Bull. 88: 371–381.Google Scholar
  35. Smith, S.V., J.T. Hollibaugh, S.J. Dollar & S. Vink. 1991. Tomales Bay metabolism: C-N-P stoichiometry and ecosystem heterotrophy at the land-sea interface. Estuaries 33: 223–257.Google Scholar
  36. Sokal, R.R. & F.J. Rohlf. 1995. Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research. W.H. Freeman and Co., New York. 887 pp.Google Scholar
  37. Strong, W.R. 1989. Behavioral ecology of horn sharks, Heterodontus francisci, at Santa Catalina Island, California, with emphasis on patterns of space utilization. M.S. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach. 252 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Szedlmayer, S.T. & K.W. Able. 1993. Ultrasonic telemetry of age-0 summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, movements in a southern New Jersey estuary. Copeia 1993: 728–736.Google Scholar
  39. Talent, L.G. 1976. Food habits of the leopard shark, Triakis semifasciata, in Elkhorn Slough, Monterey Bay, California. Calif. Fish and Game 64: 286–298.Google Scholar
  40. Teaf, C.M. 1978. A study of the tidally-oriented movements of the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina (Lesueur), in Apalachee Bay, Florida. M.S. Thesis, Florida State University, Talahassee. 48 pp.Google Scholar
  41. Tricas, T.D., L.R. Taylor & G. Noftel. 1981. Diel behavior of the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, at French Frigate Shoals, Hawaiian Islands. Copeia 1981: 904–908.Google Scholar
  42. Webber, J.D. & J.J. Cech, Jr. 1998. Nondestructive diet analysis of the leopard shark, Triakis semifasciata, from two sites in Tomales Bay, California. Calif. Fish Game 84: 18–24.Google Scholar
  43. Weihs, D. 1977. Effects of size on sustained swimming speeds of aquatic organisms. pp. 333–338. In: T.J. Pedley (ed.) Scale Effects in Animal Locomotion, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Winter, J.D. 1983. Underwater biotelemetry. pp. 371–395. In: L.A. Nielsen & D.L. Johnson (ed.) Fisheries Techniques, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joshua T. Ackerman
    • 1
  • Matthew C. Kondratieff
    • 1
  • Scott A. Matern
    • 1
  • Joseph J. Cech
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Wildlife, Fish, & Conservation BiologyUniversity of California, DavisDavisU.S.A.
  2. 2.Department of Wildlife, Fish, & Conservation BiologyUniversity of California, DavisDavisU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations