Acute myeloid leukaemia and exposure to organic solvents – a case–control study
- 64 Downloads
The objective was to study the relation between exposure to organic solvents and the risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in Caucasians aged 18 years and more. Ninety-eight cases of AML were diagnosed from September 1986 to March 1990 in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia, and in two London hospitals from September 1988 and May 1994 and from July 1992 and July 1994, respectively. Two controls were matched to each case by hospital, year of admission, gender and 5-year age group. Information on solvent exposure was collected by interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were derived with conditional logistic regression. The degree of solvent exposure was determined by three experts blind to the status of the subject with good agreement between them (the κ coefficient ranged between 0.52 and 0.86). The response rate for cases was 80%. Exposure to solvents was associated with the increased risk of AML (OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.45–4.39; p = 0.001) and those with probable exposure to solvents were found to have an odds ratio of AML over three times greater than non-exposed. We also found an elevated OR for exposure to oils (OR: 1.56) but this was not statistically significant. There is no clear pattern of increasing risks with increasing duration of employment but a significant risk was found for exposures of 10 years or less. An induction period of less than 10 years or more than 30 years was associated with a significantly raised OR. There was a significant excess of machinery mechanics and fitters among the cases.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1982; 29: 93–148.Google Scholar
- 2.Environmental Health Criteria 150, Benzene, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1993, pp. 1–156.Google Scholar
- 3.United States Environmental Protection Agency. Carcinogenic effects of benzene: an update. Prepared by the National Center for Environmental Health, Office of Research and Development. Washington, DC: USEP-A, 1998 (EPA/600/P-97/001F).Google Scholar
- 4.Flodin U, Andersson L, Anjou CG, Palm UB, Vikrot O, Axelson O. A case-referent study on acute myeloid leukaemia, background radiation and exposure to solvents and other agents. Scan J Work Environ Health 1981; 7: 169–178.Google Scholar
- 5.Cuneo A, Fagioli F, Pazzi I, et al. Morphologic, immunologic and cytogenetic studies in acute myeloid leukaemia following occupational exposure to pesticides and organic solvents. Cancer Research 1992; 16: 789–796.Google Scholar
- 6.International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some organic solvents, resin monomers and related compounds, pigments and occupational exposure in paint manufacture and painting. Lyon IARC, 1989: 424, IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, vol 47.Google Scholar
- 8.International Standard Classification of Occupations. ISCO-88. International Labour Office, Geneva.Google Scholar
- 9.Collett D. Modelling Binary Data. Chapman & Hall/CRC. 1991, p. 262–263.Google Scholar
- 10.Fleiss JL. Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions. 2nd edn. New York: Wiley, 1981, Chap. 13.Google Scholar
- 13.Hotz P, Lauwerys R. Hematopoietic and lymphatic malignancies in vehicle mechanics. Crit Reviews in Toxicol 1997; 27: 443–494.Google Scholar