European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 16, Issue 7, pp 647–652 | Cite as

Tick bite and Lyme borreliosis risk at a recreational site in England

  • J.N. Robertson
  • J.S. Gray
  • P. Stewart


The risk of tick bite and Lyme borreliosis in a forested area in England with public access was studied over a two-year period. Tick infestation levels were high with more than 1000 members of the public reporting for tick removal at a local clinic. Most of the attached ticks were nymphs (82%) and distinct differences in anatomical sites of attachment were observed in children and adults. Children sustained nymphal bites to the head, neck and axilla region much more frequently than adults (48 vs. 10%), whereas adults were bitten on the lower legs more frequently than children (46 vs. 9%). The vegetation was heavily infested with ticks and high numbers were particularly associated with areas used by deer. The average density of nymphs collected from the vegetation was 14.1 per 10 m2(range 5.1–43.6). Infection rates of these nymphs determined by PCR and indirect IFA ranged from 5.2–17.0%, and the genospeciesBorrelia valaisianaand B. gariniiwere detected, suggesting that birds may be important reservoir hosts in this area. It is estimated that, at the level of tick challenge observed here, at least 50 persons per year may be bitten by infected ticks at this site. However, no cases of Lyme borreliosis have been reported through the clinic follow-up procedure, and sera from 19 forest workers were negative for antibody to B. burgdorferisensu lato. Despite the high challenge from tick bites, this particular recreational forest site poses a low risk of infection to the general public, and prophylactic antibiotic treatment or serological testing following a bite is not justified.

Borrelia burgdorferis.l. Ixodes ricinus Lyme borreliosis Tick bites 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • J.N. Robertson
    • 1
  • J.S. Gray
    • 2
  • P. Stewart
    • 1
  1. 1.Lyme Disease Reference UnitSouthampton General HospitalUK
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Resource ManagementUniversity College DublinIreland

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