Neurochemical Research

, Volume 25, Issue 7, pp 931–940

Endogenous GM1 Ganglioside of the Plasma Membrane Promotes Neuritogenesis by Two Mechanisms

  • Yu Fang
  • Gusheng Wu
  • Xin Xie
  • Zi-Hua Lu
  • Robert W. Ledeen
Article

Abstract

The influence of GM1 on the neuritogenic phase of neuronal differentiation has been highlighted in recent reports showing upregulation of this ganglioside in the plasma and nuclear membranes concomitant with axonogenesis. These changes are accompanied by alterations in Ca2+ flux which constitute an essential component of the signaling mechanism for axon outgrowth. This study examines 2 distinct mechanisms of induced neurite outgrowth involving plasma membrane GM1, as expressed in 3 neuroblastoma cell lines. Growth of Neuro-2a and NG108-15 cells in the presence of neuraminidase (N'ase), an enzyme that increases the cell surface content of GM1, caused prolific outgrowth of neurites which, in the case of Neuro-2a, could be blocked by the B subunit of cholera toxin (Ctx B) which binds specifically to GM1; however, the latter agent applied to NG108-15 cells proved neuritogenic and potentiated the effect of N'ase. With N18 cells, the combination was also neuritogenic as was Ctx B alone, whereas N'ase by itself had no effect. Neurite outgrowth correlated with influx of extracellular Ca2+, determined with fura-2. Treatment of NG108-15 and N18 cells with Ctx B alone caused modest but persistent elevation of intracellular Ca2+ while a more pronounced increase occurred with the combination Ctx B + N'ase. Treatment with N'ase alone also caused modest but prolonged elevation of intracellular Ca2+ in NG108-15 and Neuro-2a but not N18; in the case of Neuro-2a this effect was blocked by Ctx B. Neuro-2a and N18 thus possess 2 distinctly different mechanisms for neuritogenesis based on Ca2+ modulation by plasma membrane GM1, while NG108-15 cells show both capabilities. The neurites stimulated by N'ase + Ctx B treatment of N18 cells were shown to have axonal character, as previously demonstrated for NG108-15 cells stimulated in this manner and for Neuro-2a cells stimulated by N'ase alone.

GM1 ganglioside neuritogenesis calcium modulation neuraminidase cholera toxin B subunit neuroblastoma cells 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu Fang
    • 1
  • Gusheng Wu
    • 1
  • Xin Xie
    • 1
  • Zi-Hua Lu
    • 1
  • Robert W. Ledeen
    • 2
  1. 1.New Jersey Medical SchoolUMDNJ, Department of Neurosciences MSB-H506Newark
  2. 2.New Jersey Medical SchoolUMDNJ, Department of Neurosciences MSB-H506ewark

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