Advertisement

Agriculture and Human Values

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 117–129 | Cite as

Reweaving the food security safety net: Mediating entitlement and entrepreneurship

  • Patricia Allen
Article

Abstract

The American food system has produced both abundance and food insecurity, with production and consumption dealt with as separate issues. The new approach of community food security (CFS) seeks to re-link production and consumption, with the goal of ensuring both an adequate and accessible food supply in the present and the future. In its focus on consumption, CFS has prioritized the needs of low-income people; in its focus on production, it emphasizes local and regional food systems. These objectives are not necessarily compatible and may even be contradictory. This article describes the approach of community food security and raises some questions about how the movement can meet its goals of simultaneously meeting the food needs of low-income people and developing local food systems. It explores the conceptual and political promise and pitfalls of local, community-based approaches to food security and examines alternative economic strategies such as urban agriculture and community-supported agriculture. It concludes that community food security efforts are important additions to, but not subsitutes for, a nonretractable governmental safety net that protects against food insecurity.

Anti-hunger efforts Community food security Community supported agriculture Localism Participatory democracy Urban food production 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrews, M. S. and K. L. Clancy (1993). “The political economy of the food stamp program in the United States,” in P. Pinstrup-Andersen (ed.), The Political Economy of Food and Nutrition Policies. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, R. (1997). “Where the sidewalks end,” Hope (March/April): 16–23.Google Scholar
  3. Barlow, M. and T. Clarke (1998). MAI: The Multilateral Agreement on Investment and the Threat to American Freedom. New York: Stoddart.Google Scholar
  4. Busch, L. and W. B. Lacy (1984). Food Security in the United States. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  5. Campbell, D. (1997). “Community-controlled economic development as a strategic vision for the sustainable agriculture movement,” American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 12(1): 37–44.Google Scholar
  6. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (1996). The Depth of the Food Stamp Cuts in the Final Welfare Bill. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  7. Chisholm, A. H. and R. Tyers (1982). “Food security: An introduction and overview,” in A. H. Chisholm and R. Tyers (eds.), Food Security: Theory, Policy, and Perspectives from Asia and the Pacific Rim. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  8. Clunies-Ross, T. and N. Hildyard (1992). The Politics of Industrial Agriculture. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, B. E. and M. R. Burt (1989). Eliminating Hunger: Food Security Policy for the 1990s. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, J. L. (1985). “Strategy or identity: New theoretical paradigms and contemporary social movements,” Social Research 52(4): 663–716.Google Scholar
  11. Cohen, N. L., J. P. Cooley, R. B. Hall, and A. M. Stoddard (1997). “Community supported agriculture: A study of shareholders' dietary patterns and food practices.” Paper read at the International Conference on Agricultural Production and Nutrition, March, at Tufts University, School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  12. Community Food Security Coalition (1994). A Community Food Security Act: A Proposal for New Food System Legislation as Part of the 1985 Farm Bill. By R. Gottlieb, A. Fisher, and M. Winne.Google Scholar
  13. Dahlberg, K. (1994). Food Policy Councils: The Experience of Five Cities and One County. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  14. DeLorme, C. D., Jr., D. R. Kamerschen, and D. C. Redman (1992). “The first US Food Stamp Program: An example of rent seeking and avoiding,” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 51(4): 421–433.Google Scholar
  15. Eisinger, P. (1996). “Toward a national hunger count,” Social Service Review 70(2): 214–234.Google Scholar
  16. Feenstra, G. W. (1997). “Local food systems and sustainable communities,” American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 12(1): 28–36.Google Scholar
  17. Feldman, S. and R. Welsh (1995). “Feminist knowledge claims, local knowledge, and gender divisions of agricultural labor: Constructing a successor science,” Rural Sociology 60(1): 23–42.Google Scholar
  18. Festing, H. (1997). “Community supported agriculture and vegetable box schemes.” Paper read at the International Conference on Agricultural Production and Nutrition, March, at Tufts University, School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  19. Fine, B. and E. Leopold (1993). The World of Consumption. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Fisher, A. (1997). “What is community food security?,” Urban Ecologist: 3–4.Google Scholar
  21. Fisher, A. and R. Gottlieb (1995). Community Food Security: Policies for a More Sustainable Food System in the Context of the 1995 Farm Bill and Beyond. Working Paper no. 11. The Lewis Center for Regional Policy Studies. School of Public Policy and Social Research. University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  22. Fitchen, J. M. (1997). “Hunger, malnutrition, and poverty in the contemporary United States,” in C. Counihan and P. V. Esterik (eds.), Food and Culture: A Reader. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Friedmann, H. (1993). “After Midas' feast: Alternative food regimes for the future,” in P. Allen (ed.) Food for the Future: Conditions and Contradictions of Sustainability. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  24. Friedmann, H. (1995). “Food politics: New dangers, new possibilities,” in P. McMichael (ed.) Food and Agrarian Orders in the World-Economy. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  25. Friedmann, H. and P. McMichael (1989). “Agriculture and the state system: The rise and decline of national agricultures, 1870 to the present,” Sociologia Ruralis 29(2): 93–117.Google Scholar
  26. Fuster, E., Director of Urban Agriculture, Havana, Cuba (1998). Seminar on Cuba's Urban Agriculture. University of California, Santa Cruz, 5 October.Google Scholar
  27. George, S. (1985). “Rejoinder: On the need for a broader approach,” Food Policy: 75–79.Google Scholar
  28. Goldberg, R. A. (1991). Grassroots Resistance: Social Movements in Twentieth Century America. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  29. Gottlieb, R. and A. Fisher (1996). “'First feed the face': Environmental justice and community food security,” Antipode 28(2): 193–203.Google Scholar
  30. Gottlieb, R. and A. Fisher (1998). “Community food security and environmental justice: Converging paths toward social justice and sustainable communities,” Community Food Security News (Summer): 4–5.Google Scholar
  31. Gottlieb, R. and H. Joseph (1997). “Building toward the millennium: Understanding the past and envisioning the future of the Community Food Security Coalition,” Discussion Paper Distributed at First National Community Food Security Conference, 25–26 October, at Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  32. Harvey, D. (1996). Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference. Cambridge: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  33. Heimlich, R. and C. Barnard. (1993). Agricultural Adaptation to Urbanization: Farm Types in United States Metropolitan Areas. US Department of Agriculture. Economic Research Service. AIS Report no. 51.Google Scholar
  34. Hettne, B. (1995). “Introduction: The international political economy of transformation,” in B. Hettne (ed.), International Political Economy: Understanding Global Disorder. Halifax: Fernwood Books.Google Scholar
  35. Hopkins, R. F. and D. J. Puchala (eds.) (1978). The Global Political Economy of Food. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  36. Hynes, H. P. (1996). A Patch of Eden: America's Innercity gardeners. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  37. Kloppenburg, J., Jr., J. Hendrickson, and G. W. Stevenson (1996). “Coming into the foodshed,” Agriculture and Human Values 13(3): 33–42.Google Scholar
  38. Koc, M. (1994). “Globalization as a discourse,” in A. Bonanno, L. Busch, W. Friedland, L. Gouveia, and E. Mingione (eds.), From Columbus to CongAgra: The Globalization of Agriculture and Food. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
  39. Kotz, N. (1969). Let Them Eat Promises: The Politics of Hunger in America. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  40. Kramer-LeBlanc, C. S., P. P. Basiotis, and E. T. Kennedy (1997). “Maintaining food and nutrition security in the United States with welfare reform,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 79(5): 1600–607.Google Scholar
  41. Lawson, J. (1997). “New challenges for CSAs: Beyond yuppie chow.” Community Food Security News, Newsletter of the Community Food Security Coalition (Winter): 3–4, 6. Venice, CA.Google Scholar
  42. Lewis, M. W. (1992). Green Delusions. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Lipsky, M. and M. A. Thibodeau (1990). “Domestic food policy in the United States,” Journal of Health Politics 15(2): 319–339.Google Scholar
  44. Lyson, T. A., G. W. Gillespie, Jr., and D. Hilchey (1995). “Farmers' markets and the local community: Bridging the formal and informal economy,” American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 10(3): 108–113.Google Scholar
  45. Nestle, M. and S. Guttmacher (1992). “Hunger in the United States: Rationale, methods, and policy implications of state hunger surveys,” Journal of Nutrition Education 24(1): 18S-22S.Google Scholar
  46. Neuhauser, L., D. Disbrow, and S. Margen (1995). Hunger and Food Insecurity in California. Berkeley: California Policy Seminar, University of California.Google Scholar
  47. Nugent, R. A. (1997). The Significance of Urban Agriculture. Vancouver, B.C.: City Farmer, Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture. Online. Available: http://www.cityfarmer.org/racheldraft.html#rac heldraft. Accessed on August 15, 1998.Google Scholar
  48. O'Connor, J. (1998). Natural Causes: Essays in Ecological Marxism. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  49. O'Neill, O. (1986). Faces of Hunger: An essay on Poverty, Justice, and Development. London: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  50. Ohls, J. C. and H. Beebout (1993). The Food Stamp Program: Design Tradeoffs, Policy, and Impacts. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
  51. Poppendieck, J. (1986). Breadlines Knee-Deep in Wheat: Food Assistance in the Great Depression. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Poppendieck, J. (1997). “The USA: Hunger in the land of plenty,” in G. Riches (ed.), First world Hunger: Food Security and Welfare Politics. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  53. Radimer, K. L., C. M. Olson, J. C. Greene, C. C. Campbell, and J. P. Habicht (1992). “Understanding hunger and developing indicators to assess it is women and children,” Journal of Nutrition Education 24: 36S-44S.Google Scholar
  54. Rau, B. (1991). From Feast to Famine: Official Cures and Grassroots Remedies to Africa's Rood Crisis. London: Zed Press.Google Scholar
  55. Redclift, M. (1987). Sustainable Development: Exploring the Contradictions. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Riches, G. (1997). “Hunger and the welfare state: Comparative perspectives,” in G. Riches (ed.), First World Hunger: Food Security and Welfare Politics. New York: St. Martin's Press.Google Scholar
  57. Rosset, P. (1996). “Food First and local coalition promote urban farming,” Institute for Food and Development Policy News & Views (Winter).Google Scholar
  58. Sarasohn, D. (1997). “Hunger on Main Street: Food banks are straining, but the worst is yet to come,” The Nation 265(19): 13–18.Google Scholar
  59. Scott, J. C. (1989). “Everyday forms of resistance,” in F. D. Colburn (ed.), Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc.Google Scholar
  60. Second Harvest Food Bank (1998). Hunger: The Faces and Facts 1997. Local Report of Santa Cruz and San Benito Counties. Watsonville, CA.Google Scholar
  61. Sharp, R. (1995). “Organizing for change: People power and the role of institutions,” in J. Kirkby, P. O'Keefe, and L. Timberlake (eds.), The Earthscan Reader in Sustainable Development. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  62. Sommers, P. and J. Smit (1994). Promoting Urban Agriculture: A Strategy Framework for Planners in North America, Europe and Asia. Cities Feeding People-Series Report 9. Ottowa: International Development Research Centre. Online. Available: http://www.idrc.ca/cfp/rep09_e.html. Accessed on August 15, 1998.Google Scholar
  63. US Department of Agriculture (USDA). Economic Research Service. Agricultural History Branch (1963). Century of Service: The First 100 Years of the United States Department of Agriculture. By G. L. Baker, W. D. Rasmussen, V. Wiser, and J. M. Porter. Washington, DC: US G.P.O.Google Scholar
  64. US Department of Agriculture. National Agricultural Statistics Service (1998a). Agricultural Statistics 1998. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  65. US Department of Agriculture (1998b). Glickman Opens Farmers Market, Announces Latest “Report Card” on the American Diet. Web Site of the US Department of Agriculture. Accessed on November 5.Google Scholar
  66. US Department of Labor (1994). Employment, Hours, and Earnings, United States, 1909–1994. Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics.Google Scholar
  67. US House of Representatives. Select Committee on Hunger (1989). Food Security and Methods of Assessing Hunger in the United States. Serial 101–2. Washington, DC: US G.P.O.Google Scholar
  68. United Nations Development Programme (1986). Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities. Vol. 1. Publication Series for Habitat II. New York.Google Scholar
  69. University of Massachusetts Extension (1997). What Is Community Supported Agriculture and How Does It Work? Online. Available: http://www.umass.edu/umext/CSA/aboutcsa.html.Google Scholar
  70. Van En, R. (1995). “Eating for your community,” In Context 42: 29–31.Google Scholar
  71. Weir, M. (1994). “Urban poverty and defensive localism,” Dissent: 337–342.Google Scholar
  72. Winne, M., H. Joseph, and A. Fisher (1997). Community Food Security: A Guide to Concept, Design, and Implementation. Venice, CA: Community Food Security Coalition.Google Scholar
  73. World Bank (1986). Poverty and Hunger — Issues and Options for Food Security in Developing Countries. Washington, DC: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.Google Scholar
  74. Young, I. M. (1995). “Communication and the other: Beyond deliberative democracy,” in M. Wilson and A. Yeatman (eds.), Justice and Identity: Antipodean Practices. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia Allen
    • 1
  1. 1.Sustainable Food Systems, Center for Agroecology and Sustainable Food SystemsUniversity of CaliforniaSanta CruzUSA

Personalised recommendations