Advertisement

European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 377–379 | Cite as

Faecal excretion of Vibrio cholerae during convalescence of cholera patients in Calabar, Nigeria

  • S.J. Utsalo
  • F.O. Eko
  • F. Umoh
  • A.A. Asindi
Article

Abstract

The pattern of faecal excretion of Vibrio cholerae was studied over a duration of eight months among 13 cholera convalescents by two-weekly surveillance cultures. Stools and rectal swabs were cultured on Thiosulphate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) agar for the recovery of vibrio pathogens. Clinical phase and convalescent phase V. cholerae strains were compared for antibiogram profiles. The population of vibrios recovered from faecal inocula was usually scanty ( < 103 vibrios/g). All clinical isolates except three were concordant with convalescent phase strains. Sensitivity to tetracycline was uniform for concordant V. cholerae strains, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 0.5–4.0 μg/ml. Nine (69.2%) of the convalescents had positive faecal cultures for periods ranging from two weeks to more than seven months. Two adults whose excretions lasted several months also tested positive for human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infections. The significance of stool surveillance cultures for identifying asymptomatic infections among convalescents who may need chemotherapy to abolish excretion is emphasised. However, it could not be established with certainty if vibrios excreted during convalescence were from enteric colonization by the causative strains, or re-infections with the common strains in circulation.

Cholera convalescents Faecal excretions 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Eko FO, Nansel A, Bunka S, Lubitz W. Immunogenicity of Vibrio cholerae ghost cells following intraperitoneal immunization of mice. Vaccine 1994; 12: 1330–1334.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mulder GD, Ries TM, Beaver TR. Non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae wound infection after exposure to contaminated lake water. J Infect Dis 1989; 159: 809–810.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Glass RI, Svennerholm A-M, Khan K, Hudas S, Huq MI, Holmgren J. Sero-epidemiological studies of E1 Tor cholera in Bangladesh; Association of serum antibody level with protection. J Infect Dis 1985; 151: 236–242.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Utsalo SJ, Eko FO, Antia-Obong OE. Features of cholera and Vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhoea endemicity in Calabar, Nigeria. Eur J Epidemiol 1992; 8: 856–860Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Eko FO, Udo SM, Antia-Obong OE. Epidemiology and spectrum of vibrio diarrhoeas in the lower Cross River Basin of Nigeria. Eur J Publ Hlth 1994; 2: 37–41.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Utsalo SJ, Mboto CI, Gemade EII, Nwangwa MA. Halophilic Vibrio spp. associated with hard clams (Mercenaria spp.) from the Calabar River estuary. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 1988; 82: 327–329.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Colwell RR, Spira WM. The ecology of Vibrio cholerae. In: Barua D, Greenough WB III (eds), Cholera. New York: Plenum Medical Book Co., 1992: 107–127.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kelly MT, Hickman-Brenner FW, Farmer JJ. Vibrio. In: Balows A, Hausler WJ, Herrmann KL, Isenberg HD, Shadomy HJ (eds.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1991: 384–395.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Black RE. Epidemiology of diarrhoeal disease; Implication for control by vaccines. Vaccine 1993; 11: 100–106.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    DA, Freij L, Holmgren J. Prospects for public health benefits in developing countries from new vaccines against enteric infections. J Infect Dis 1991; 163: 503–506.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • S.J. Utsalo
    • 1
  • F.O. Eko
    • 1
  • F. Umoh
    • 1
  • A.A. Asindi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medical Microbiology &; Parasitology, College of Medical SciencesUniversity of CalabarCalabarNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Paediatrics, College of MedicineKing Saud UniversityAbhaSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations